Australia - the only country in the world, occupying an area of the same name the whole continent. For most people, Australia is associated only with the Opera House, or blood-red Uluru. But these hackneyed images give a small idea of the natural treasures of Australia and its cultural diversity. Australia offers experiences for every taste, from the uninhabited expanses Barrier Reef and its islands, and ending with a cosmopolitan Sydney and the best beaches in the world. The vast expanses of the country, a hybrid of ancient culture and the culture of the local Aboriginal people of the new world - this is what makes Australia such an unusually attractive and creates her character.
Australia - the continent in the southern hemisphere, as well as an independent state, whose official name - the Commonwealth. The structure of this state, except for the mainland, are about. Tasmania and other islands. Mainland bordering the Pacific Ocean on the east, the Indian Ocean - the west and south.
Australia - the smallest continent on Earth, stands exceptional originality of his nature. This continent relics of ancient natural objects and unique wildlife. The topography of the country remained the surface has not changed since the Tertiary period, due to the inherent characteristics of this continent only the formation of relief - from the time of separation from the supercontinent Pangea Australian plate drifted southward almost without being exposed to any tectonic upheavals.
Nature of the ancient supercontinent of Australia - also remained almost unchanged in conditions of prolonged isolation from other continents and the lack of competition on the part of the "new" species of plants and animals, that is. K. Australia is separated from the other continents vast ocean spaces.
Australia has long been considered one of the most urbanized countries in the world. Currently, a typical Australian lives in the suburbs of the five major cities - Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth. More than 9.7 ml. person, i.e. more than 60% of the population lives in the five metropolitan districts, and with the rapidly growing population of "Gold Coast" of Queensland south of Brisbane, this figure rises to 65%.
Sydney, rightly recognized as one of the most beautiful cities in the world - it is the most cosmopolitan, the most fun and the most beautiful city in the country. The city was founded in 1788 on the shores of Port Jackson (the first European settlement in Australia) and for 200-odd years has evolved from a small settlement of convicts in a huge (4 times more than in Moscow with a population of only 4 million. Persons) ultra-city carefully keeps monuments of their history.
Unique contrast City skyscrapers and old buildings Rocks and King's Cross, souvenir shops in the area Yorks and Elizabeth, and Asian neighborhoods of Chinatown and Liverpool Street, vast green spaces, parks and boulevards, and cutting-edge building Olympic facilities Kronos Hill, Sydney and Syuperdom Marseille Stedium near Homebush, majestic (and one of the biggest in the world) Sydney Harbour and thrown over her unique single-span Harbour Bridge 503 meters long. During lunch at the Sydney Tower on Market Street, at an altitude of 305 m., You can not only get acquainted with the layout of the city, but also enjoy a variety of Australian and Asian dishes, exotic seafood, meat kangaroos and emus. Oxford Street's focused a lot of bars and restaurants near Darling Harbour - hundreds of galleries, bars, hotels and restaurants, and on George Street and Market Street - the best shopping in the city.
You can also directly within the city sunbathing on luxury Bondi Beach (the most famous beach in the country, its golden sand stretches for a kilometer in length) and Manley, visit one of the world's largest Sydney Aquarium at Darling Harbour or the zoo Toronga, in which 1916 for the first time in the world began to keep animals in the wild - in open-air cages, as well as the famous Opera House - Sydney or symbol carved into the rock yet the first governor of the city viewing platform "Chair Mrs. McGuire." You can spend a whole day in a huge shopping complex "House of Queen Victoria" or the chic Royal Botanical Garden, where an extensive collection of plants from around the world.
In the city of many interesting cultural sites - the famous Sydney Museum of History and Anthropology, Australian Military Memorial Art Gallery, the National Maritime Museum (a really interesting place - here contains everything about the sea and swimming facilities - from boats to battleships Aboriginal and surfboards) art Gallery of New South Wales, Museum of applied Arts and Sciences, one of the most "daring" museums - Museum of Modern Art, the Museum of Antiquities Nicholson, Wild Animal Park in Australia, and Hyde Park.
Be sure to visit the promenade near Woolloomooloo and opals factory where you can not only learn all about these amazing rocks, but also to see the whole process of turning a nondescript rock in jewels (Australia produces 90% of the world's opals). There you can buy all kinds of jewelry made of black opals, pearls or colored diamonds.
In the vicinity of Perth's interesting to explore the world's largest open gold and nickel deposits in the Kalgoorlie area, as well as mines the world's largest diamond district Kimberley. This is an area of large rivers and magnificent scenery, quaint relic of nature and plants, and animals. It is said that the most typical Australian landscapes - red earth, rocks, trees and blue skies, meet here.
Darwin is small but modern city, the center of the northern provinces and the main "gateway" country in Southeast Asia, is closer to Jakarta than to Sydney. In this city, in the short term, you can get as much experience and get acquainted with such wonders of wildlife, which can hardly be found anywhere else. In Kakadu Park (included in the UNESCO World Heritage list) in the unique natural landscapes assembled a fine collection of wildlife, flora and representatives of the avian world of the continent, the Wild Animal Park in Northern Territory ("Territory Wildlife Park"), along with other members of the Australian fauna, You can get acquainted with the legendary Australian fish giant "barramandi." In the vicinity of Darwin's beautiful parks are located in Litchfield and Katherine Gorge.
But the main attraction in Australia yet - it stretches along the eastern coast of the Great Barrier Reef, a UNESCO World Heritage Site of the United Nations, with its world-renowned coral reefs and islands, resorts Lizard, Bedarra, Hayman, Hamilton et al. This is the largest reef system in the world and the largest structure "created" by living organisms of the planet. In the north, the reef is actually continuous, and is located just 50 km away. from the coast, in the south it splits into a group of individual reefs, in some places, retreating from the coast at 300 km. Hundreds and hundreds of islands protrude from the depths of the sea to the surface, and only two dozen of them are inhabited. Great Barrier Reef - "underwater mecca" of all divers in the world.
Magnetic Island Island is probably the best place in the world for diving and sailing. Here the marvelous beaches of coral sand, fine hotels and virtually untouched wilderness - there is even a colony of koalas.
Island Lizard Island (Lizard) - one of the most exclusive resorts in the world. This is the most northern, the most famous, but also very expensive resort Barrier Reef. But guaranteed exceptional comfort, fine cuisine, beautiful beaches, fishing, excellent diving (stingrays, manta rays, moray eels, and so on. Etc..), Tennis, cruises, trips to the reefs, water skiing, swimming pool, restaurants and bars.
Reserve Wallgrove street - 40 km east of Sydney is a nature reserve with wild animals. A large collection of animals living in the wild. Allowed feeding kangaroos and koalas photographing with.
Glidsvud (Gledswood), located 65 km west of Sydney, Australia, will make you feel the past. Breathe the atmosphere of colonial life. You'll see sheep shearing, shows dogs for the protection of sheep and learn to throw a boomerang and take a trip on horseback.
about. Fitzroy (Fitzroy Island) - a picturesque National Park with virgin forests, hills and snow-white coral beaches.
Park Dream World - wonderful attractions that recreate the spirit of the old Australia. You will be able to communicate with kangaroos, emus, hold hands on the charming koala bears. Sitting on the train, you go round the whole park, you can sail on an old boat or go on a trip by air road. On the island you will find the Tiger these Bengal tigers.
Port Darling (Darling Harbour) - is a modern facility, located next to the port. The center includes the Sydney Aquarium with a huge variety of fish and ocean dwellers, IMAX Theater, National Maritime Museum, Chinese Garden, a variety of restaurants and shops. National Maritime Museum - a submarine and various vessels which are directly in the water. You will be able to examine them yourself and moreover to try their hand in the management of this sailing ship, of course, with the help of an instructor.
Taronga Zoo (Taronga Zoo) Zoo is located opposite the port and contains a rich collection of a variety of animals, both domestic and exotic. A designated area for the Koala, which you can take pictures.
IMAX Theatre - a kind of interactive show. Huge, probably the biggest screen in the world, not only to see, say, a volcanic eruption, but also feel it through the various audiovisual effects.
Rocks - a quarter of the first European settlement in Australia. Recreated and restored the house at the time, streets, specialty shops and, of course, Australia's oldest pub "Lord Nelson."
Royal Botanic Gardens, which lie in an area of 30 hectares and is filled with amazing beauty of plants and flowers.
Blue Mountains - this place is located just 104 kilometers west of Sydney. Impressive views of rocks called the Three Sisters - giant rock formations of Aboriginal legends. With numerous lookouts you will see the Great Australian Canyon. The steepest railway, with the top of the cliff, you can descend into the eucalyptus forest and take a walk to the waterfall Katoomba.
Kings Canyon is located just 323 kilometers west of Alice Springs. Length Canyon 2 km, and the height of the walls, painted in pastel colors and reaches 200 meters. There is also a "lost city" and "Garden of Eden" with their lush vegetation.
Ayers Rock (Ayers Rock) - 450 km to the south-east is the unique beauty of the place - Ayers Rock. Throughout this area there is a set of sacred Aboriginal stone rocky formations. One of the most famous is considered Uluru - a huge block of stone, the largest monolith in the world. Particularly well this place during sunset and sunrise. Not far away, you can stay in a luxury hotel, made like a resort.
Green Island (Green Island) - an international resort. Scuba diving, swimming and snorkelling, walking on the rain forest-jungle.
Fitzroy Island (Fitzroy Island) - is the set of types of accommodation, including camping. An ideal place for a family holiday. A wide variety of sports entertainment.
Dunk Island (Dunk Island) is famous for its rain forests and inhabiting them with colorful birds and butterflies. Accommodation ranges from luxury cabins located right on the shore to the cottages in the gardens. Water sports, horseback riding, golf.
Bedarra Island (Bedarra Island) - an exclusive and chic island. Not more than 16 pairs may be simultaneously in the same hotel. Prohibited for children under the age of 15 years. Accommodation in a villa. Tennis, water sports, exquisite cuisine.
Orpheus Island (Orpheus Island) - here live dolphins, giant turtles, from August to October whales swim. Any water sports. Not allowed to rest with children. Accommodation in bungalows and studios, located right on the shore.
Hayman Island (Hayman Island) - one of the world's most famous and luxurious resorts. Great food, water sports and an elegant ambience.
Hamilton Island (Hamilton Island) - various types of accommodation. For any budget. Water Sports, National Park, 10 restaurants, and more.
Lindeman Island Club Mad (Club Med Lindeman Island) - the island where the first settled in Australia Club Mad. Large selection of sports entertainment. Dolphins and whales.
Brampton Island (Brampton Island) - romantic island jungle full of life and forests. Kangaroos and other animals. Bungalow rasplozhena directly into the lush garden. Variety of sports.
Keppel Island (Keppel Island) - More than 40 kinds of sports entertainment. Kilometer-long sandy beaches and cozy Emerald Bay. An ideal place for young people.
Heron Island (Heron Island) - a beautiful resort destination. Considered one of the most beautiful and attractive places in the world to scuba dive. The island is surrounded by white sandy beaches, clear waters and acres of brilliant coral.
Fraser Island (Fraser Island) - the largest sand island. Beautiful sand dunes and freshwater lakes. Various types of accommodation.
The hottest time of the year - from November to January, this time all over the country, the temperature is from +20 C to +32 C, and in the central regions can reach up to 38-42 + C. In this case after 1,5 - 2 hours after sunset, the temperature can drop to 10-12 C.
The country has three time zones. Time in Sydney ahead of Moscow in winter is 7 hours in the summer - by 8 Furthermore, the time is changing and from state to state, where CST is sometimes added half an hour.
Official language - English.
Australian Dollar (AUD).
Issued in the period up to three weeks. To obtain a visa must have a passport, 1 profile with a photo, invitation - private, travel or office, help with the employer stating position, length of service, the total monthly income, health insurance for the duration of stay in the country, evidence of credit (documents, indicating the presence of the applicant's property), a declaration on the export of currency, and if you follow the children, notarized consent of the other parent to the removal of children. Unlike private and tourist trip with the kids at the business invitation difficult.
The typical length of stay in the country on a tourist invitation - up to two weeks for the private - up to one month for the service - up to three months. For private and tourist invitation can be issued only a one-time visa for the service can issue multiple-entry visas to enter the country for a specified period of time. Consular fee is $ 35.
Almost all national holidays are celebrated on the following Monday to extend the weekend:
January 26 - New Year's Day, Australia
April 25 - Easter, Australia and New Zealand
June - Queen's Birthday
October - Labour Day
December 26 - Christmas Day and Boxing Day
Sydney Festival (January) - the main cultural event in Australia, in which are many street performances, mandatory premiere at the Sydney Opera House, a grand military parade and a large-scale productions on the mainland arrival of the first settlers. The world's largest festival of sexual minorities - the famous "Mardi Grass", held in Sydney in February.
Traditional tennis tournament ATP "Australian Open" is held in Melbourne in late January. The Australian Grand Prix world championship in the class races Formula 1 is held annually in February and March in Melbourne. "The Australian International Airshow" - the world famous air show, which is held annually in February and March in the suburbs of Melbourne Avalon Airport - Geelong.
Among the sporting events highlighted Darwin Beer Regatta in August, when there were several races "flotation devices", built entirely of beer cans and barrels. On the eve of Thanksgiving Day (December) is hosting an international yacht race Sydney - Hobart, August 26 starts the yacht regatta around Australia. And almost all life in the country stops during the Melbourne Cup football (the first Tuesday in November).
Chinese New Year is celebrated throughout Australia in February. "Adelaide Art Festival" is held in early March in even-numbered years. Odd, in February, held "Vomadeleyd" - music and dance festival of Adelaide. Melbourne Comedy Festival holds in February and incredibly noisy and picturesque Melbourne International Festival in October.
Traditional cuisine Australia
Australian cuisine - one of the most diverse and "colorful" cuisines. Based on the Anglo-Irish tradition, it has absorbed a huge amount of culinary techniques of Asian cuisine, especially Japanese, Chinese and Malay.
Meat products play a key role - along with the traditional Australian steak with blood, as well as lamb and pork all possible ways of cooking are widely used rabbit, kangaroo, emu, crocodile, possum or "local delicacies" of beetles and larvae "uitchetti."
Popular meat pie puff pastry - "share" marinated beef fillet with curry spinach and thick sauce "bitrut" great steak "sprinkles" kangaroo sauce "kvandong" ("dessert peach"), dishes from the series "bush Tucker "(on the coals), chickens" Melbourne "sauce, fillet of kangaroo meat with mushrooms and salad of rolled tubes of thin slices of ham and Asian" satay ". Smoked ribs are popular along with bacon or pizza, Chinese fried rice with chicken comes in addition to a sharp soup "that's the pits" and the Mediterranean "dolma" meets at least Russian dumplings. As a snack popular "roll sandwiches" - twisted into a roll sandwiches with various fillings, as well as "vegemit" - a thick dark mass of vegetables and dough, spread on bread.
Fish, oysters, mussels, scallops, octopus, crabs, shrimp and other seafood are also a variety of integral part of the Australian section. Methods for their preparation, countless, but more and more popular in this sector become Asian recipes, when the product is consumed almost raw, or vice versa - is processed beyond recognition, but always accompanied by excellent sauce or rice.
Australian national dish is a barracuda (especially caught in the Cleveland area), and baked in the coals and herbs trout, salmon from Tasmania, and fish "barramandi." To fish or meat is often served "chutney" - spicy seasoning apples with ginger, cloves and vinegar.
Lovely local vegetables are used to prepare salads of all kinds. And so by the number of fruits and berries on the table clearly country is among the world leaders - blackberries, kiwi, mango, papaya, lychee, avocado, citrus and other tropical fruits are not only consumed as a standalone dessert, but also included as an integral component to many dishes . About 20% of Australian plants are edible.
Widely used exotic local fruits and vegetables - "riberriz" Australian acacia seeds, nuts "Banja", pepper leaves, plum-cockatoos and more.
National desserts are considered "Pavlova" - kiwi meringue and fresh cream, doused with chocolate and sprinkled with coconut crumb cake "Lamington" Arnott biscuits, as well as "antsaks" - of oatmeal cookies with coconut.
Australian wine is not inferior in quality to the best European varieties. Such varieties as "Semillon" from the Hunter Valley, "Muscat" and "Tokai" on the north-east of Victoria, or "Ennis Lane" from the Clare Valley, widely popular in the world. Of red wine is good "Kangaroo Ridge", "Shiraz", "Merlot", "Dark Horse", "Lindemans", "Valentine" and "Cabernet". Popular white "Chardonnay", "Rhine Riesling", "Lindemans", "White Shark", "White Shiraz", "Riesling Traminer", "Semillon Chardonnay" and "Miranda". Beer is also excellent and even exported to many countries around the world. The best known varieties "Bougz", "Victoria Bitter", "Carlton Kould", "Keskeyd", "Cooper", "Redbek", "Swan," "Powers," "Tuiz", "Foster", "Foreks" etc. . produced in many areas of local beers, no way inferior to the famous brand.
Many restaurants have a system BYO (Bring Your Own - "bring along"), which allows to carry his drink, if in this place booked dinner or lunch. This is often reported large inscription BYO door or in the window of the restaurant.
Restrictions on the sale of alcohol - only from Monday to Saturday from 17:00 to midnight (the actual time is different in different states), and only persons who have reached 18 years of age. Smoking is prohibited in public places, government buildings, public transport and domestic flights.
Political system Australia
The form of government - a constitutional monarchy. The head of state is the British Queen, represented by the Governor-General. Legislative authority is the Parliament consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives. Executive power is vested in the Government headed by the Prime Minister, who is the leader of the political party that won the most votes in the House of Representatives.
The greatest number of believers - Catholics.
In a country can not be imported foods. The import of drugs, steroids, cold steel and firearms, protected plants, animals and their products. Any animals, food, plants and their products must be declared and subject to quarantine control. Restrictions on the import / export to Australia of any currency in any amount does not exist.
When importing cash bank notes in excess of the amount equivalent to 5 000 Australian dollars, they must be specified in the declaration. This rule does not apply to travelers' checks and credit cards. Travellers over 16 years old can import duty free to alcoholic beverages - up to 1 liter, tobacco - up to 250 grams.
In Australia, the most vigilant quarantine service. On arrival at the airport, you and your luggage can be sprayed with a disinfectant that is approved by WHO. The penalty for intentional transportation of prohibited products is from 32 to 5794 dollars, or up to 5 years in prison. When leaving the country each passenger over 12 years old pay tax 27 Australian dollars.
Medical aid Australia
When traveling to Australia recommended vaccination of adults and children older than one year against yellow fever. Medical insurance for the duration of stay in Australia is required.
Working hours Australia
Shops are open from 09:00 to 17:00 on Fridays they close for an hour or two later, and some work until 9pm.
Banks are open Monday to Thursday from 09:30 to 16:00 (until 17:00 on Friday), Saturday and Sunday - days (in some states are working on a Saturday morning).
Catering - from 10 to 22 hours, but in some places drinking establishments are closed only after the last guest leaves. You can pay with credit cards - primarily Visa and MasterCard, which are widely accepted. Get cash from the cards is not very convenient: for this service charge of 15%.
In a country drive on the left. For foreign drivers (at least 21 years) in Australia, you must have permission to drive the international standard (in English) and the national driver's license with a certified translation into English, valid for the period of stay in Australia for at least 3 consecutive years. Foreigners driving, except for the driver's license must be in possession of a passport with a valid visa. A car can take anyone over 21 years (sometimes - 25 years). Minimum driving experience - 2 years.
Major cities in South-East of the country connected to the bus lines of "Greyhound-Pioneer", the south and east coast - a sparse network of railways. The best way to know the country - a journey by car. Distances between cities can reach 2,045 km.
City buses run from 05:00 to 23:00. Fare paid cards that you can buy at stores and stations. It is most advantageous to buy weekly (green, 17,5 AUD) card suitable for all types of transport and operating from 09:00 in the morning. Sydney has an extensive network of monorail trains and coastal vessels. Taxis are easy to catch on to the street or to order by phone, even late at night. Cab fare is relatively inexpensive. A whole system of water taxis.
Potable water Australia
Tap water is suitable for drinking.
Mains voltage - 240/250 volts AC at 50 Hz; sockets have three jacks. Voltage adapters and adapters for inclusion in the network may be required (can be purchased in Australia) for the use of European and Asian electrical appliances.
In cafes and restaurants often imposes restrictions on smoking.
Tipping is not common here as well as in Europe. The restaurant tipping is not higher than 10% of the bill, the porter can give $ 1 taxi driver left a trifle.