Perhaps there is no country more peculiar, mysterious and attractive. China - a country which has inherited the achievement of one of the most advanced civilizations of the past - a country of amazing contrasts: burning heat Asian deserts, the riot of tropical forests of southern China and the silence of the glaciers "Roof of the World" - Tibet World famous are the Chinese silk, ceramic and porcelain, the famous Great Wall length of 1000 km, remarkable examples of palace architecture.
China occupies a large part of the East and Central Asia. Area of the country - 9.6 million. Km2 (third in the world after Russia and Canada), which is almost 1/4 the area of Asia.
China - the country's numerous historical monuments. Under the protection of the state are more than 240 monuments of world importance. 24 cities with a rich historical and revolutionary traditions declared reserves. The country has 29 cultural and natural sites included in the UNESCO Register of World Heritage Sites. According to the number of unique monuments and natural areas that are part of the whole world heritage, China is the third largest in the world, second only to Spain and Italy. The sights of China are: the ruins of the capital of the ancient kingdom of Koguryo and disposal of its rulers (the north-eastern province of Jilin), 3 graves of the emperors of the Qing Dynasty and their ancestors (north-eastern Liaoning province), as well as the palace complex of the first and second emperors of the Qing Dynasty (province Liaoning).
Beijing usually visit the Great Wall, Summer Palace, Temple of Heaven and the inherent wonder of China - Beijing opera. Shanghai is famous Jade Buddha Temple and the most famous entertainment center Paramount Hall («Gate hundred joys"). Nanjing preserved many medieval buildings, including the city wall of the Ming epoch, temples and pagodas, as well as the mausoleum of the first president of the Republic of China Sun Yat-sen. 80 km north-west of Beijing are Badaling sections, Mutyanyu and Simatai Great Wall. In the ancient city of Xi'an is a unique museum of terra-cotta figures of warriors and horses from the tomb of the First Qin Emperor Emperor, and located near Zhoukoudian made to the UNESCO World Heritage Site unique archaeological sites - place the detection of fossils of the earliest forms of man.
In Suzhou, there are more than 100 well-preserved garden and park ensembles created by many generations of imperial dynasties. To the south-east of Beijing is famous Mount Taishan - one of the holiest sites of Taoism, Confucius Temple and the architectural and park complex of the Yanshengun. Pingyao city is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List and is known for the ancient city wall (1370), a temple with a wooden pavilion Chzhengosy Vanfosy (X century), the temple Shuanlinsy (571 g) and Tsinsyuyguan (657 g), and a variety of monasteries. The main attraction of the city of Lijiang World Heritage List is lined with multi-colored stone slabs street - Sifang Square - one of the centers of the Silk and Tea trade routes of antiquity.
Travel along the ancient Silk Road, starts from the city Chang'an (Xi'an) and passes through Central Asia to the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Tourists will be able to visit the three famous canyons of Xinjiang, on the Yangtze River, Mount Emei in the Three Gorges in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve. You will get acquainted with the temple Famensy where preserved remains of the Buddha Sakyamuni; Mogao cave temples and Binlinsy, caves in the mountains Maijishan; Jiayuguan outpost - the endpoint of the Great Wall, lamasery Taersy, Gaochang ancient city ruins. Along the "Silk Road" located Qinghai Lake, Lake Tianchi in Xinjiang, Bainbuluksky reserve, wind turbine in the desert Karamay, ruins of ancient Moguychen (city devils).
Chongqing - one of the oldest cities in China, its history goes back more than three thousand. Years. The city is known for its old, clinging to the slopes of the mountains, neighborhoods, hot springs, picturesque foothills of the mountains and Tszinyunshan Nanshan and Oolong nearby caves, wooded park Tszinfoshan, rock carvings Carvings, colorful waterfalls on the river in the mountains of Ziyang Wushan, a magnificent fortress "Dyaoyuychen" in Hechuan, architectural and landscape ensemble in the county fortress Shibaochzhay Chzhunsyan, Zhang Fei in kumirnju Yunyane, Buddhist monastery in the county Shuanguytan Lyanpin and "stone forest" Vanshen county. In the town itself are interesting Museum "Hunyantsun" Memorial of the victims of the concentration camps of the Kuomintang, the residence of Chiang Kai-shek, Zhang Zhizhong ("Guiyuan Temple") and Kun Xiangxi ("Kunyuan"). From the city begin numerous river cruises on the great Yangtze River, to the doorsteps of Fuling and "heavenly ladder" in the county Shizhu.
In Hong Kong, the busiest deepwater port in the world, interested in Victoria Park on the hillside, "district floating markets" Aberdeen, Man Mo Temple ("Old Man Mo Temple"), Central Market, "a paradise for sailors" Wanchai, the building of the Legislative Council, the Anglican Cathedral St. John, a former French Mission, government House, the most beautiful protected parks, covering an area of about 40% of the territory of the city, zoological and botanical gardens, beaches Ripalz Bay, Deep Water Bay and Stanley, as well as ultra-modern buildings of banks and financial institutions.
On the Kowloon Peninsula in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong is a tourist center - thousands of shops and bars, Space Museum, Museum of History and the famous Peninsula Hotel, Park "City, walled" relics of the Qing Dynasty, a giant chess board, Garden birds, greenhouses, exhibition of bonsai and other landscaped sites. Lantau Island is famous for its relatively unspoiled nature and monasteries Lin with his giant bronze Buddha statue.
Separate administrative unit of Shanghai - one of the biggest shopping cities in the world. In addition to thousands of retail establishments streets Nandzin Donley, Huaihai Zhongli, Zhinlin Donley, Sichuan Bailey, Jinling Donley and Nyantszin Force, as well as Banda and Frenchtown, here be sure to explore the picturesque streets Sizhou Creek, Old Town, with a vast area of Renmin Shanghai Museum, Exhibition Shanghai center, the Museum of art and History, the Museum of natural Sciences, mandarin Yu garden (XVI c.), garden Purple Autumn Clouds, Jade Buddha Temple (Yuyfesy) and Cheng Huang Temple, as well as the majestic 5-tiered pagoda Longhua.
Hainan Island ("Island south of the sea"), often called the "Hawaii of the East" - one of the best resort areas in East Asia. Grandiose landscape parks and thermal springs Guantan and Xinglong Valley hot springs, ancient volcano Ma Anh, villages of ethnic minorities Li and Miao, Ocean Park "Middle Chindia" - Asia's largest aquarium with exotic fish and sea animals, a garden of tropical plants in Xinglong, and also tens of kilometers of beautiful beaches. Best Resort Island - Sanya, known for its fashionable and relatively high prices.
Tibet - an original edge of the thousands of monasteries and ancient culture. Tibet is considered the heart of Lhasa with dozens of Buddhist monasteries and temples, the most famous of which is the temple Yokhan and Patala Palace (XVII century.) - The residence of the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan Norbulingka Park (Norbug-Linkha, summer residential palace of the Dalai Lama, in 1994 it was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site). Pilgrims come here certainly are eager to see the "center of the world" - Kailash mountain range and the residence of the Panchen Lama in Shigatse, go through the ancient Silk Road through the Karakorum Highway in the north, or simply enjoy the perfect conditions for trekking and stunning panoramas of ancient Tibet.
For history buffs will be interested in the city of Port Arthur (Dalian, admission is limited), Harbin, the capital of Old Mongolia - Gohhot, the most distant from the ocean city in the world - Urumqi, Luoyang with his Sunyue (523, the oldest pagoda in the country) and nearby monastery of Shaolin, the northern city Erhan Lake Lidzhiyan, "two-faced" Enchzhou, Fengdu at Mingshan holy mountain, "ghost town" Fengdu, a treasure trove of Buddhist art in the caves of Mogao, city-monument and one of the shrines of Buddhism - Carvings, "the most beautiful place in China "- Guilin and Yangshuo, monuments mysterious civilization Shu - Sansinduy or" capital of Chinese gardening art "Suzhou, as well as dozens and dozens of equally interesting places.
In the latitudinal direction China stretches for 50 degrees north latitude, most of it lies in the temperate zone, dominated by continental monsoon climate. The southern areas are in the subtropical and tropical zones, the northern border of the cold zone. Different regions of China are very different climatic conditions. Traditionally, the best time to visit historical sites in China are considered spring and autumn. At the same time, sub-tropical resorts on. Hainan, are popular throughout the year.
Ahead of Moscow for 5 hours.
The basic unit - yuan = 10 jiao (or mao) = 100 fyn (fen). In circulation there are denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 and 100 yuan banknotes and coins of 1, 2 and 5 jiao, and 1, 2 and 5 fen. The yuan exchange rate is: 8.1 yuan per dollar, 3.5 - 4 rubles per one yuan. Currency can be exchanged at the principal offices of the Bank of China, as well as in hotels, international airports, railway stations and in some large shopping centers. This should keep your receipts received in the exchange as well as the return of the remaining RMB exchange is only possible if their badges. For exchange must submit a customs declaration or a statement from the bank, as well as proof of identity.
To obtain a visa you need to apply to the Chinese embassy or consular missions abroad. When crossing the border must present a passport with a valid visa and a completed "arrival card."
Mode of entry of Russian citizens in Hong Kong and Macau. Possession of a visa to China does not entitle you to enter Hong Kong. Visa by the local authorities upon arrival at Hong Kong International Airport to other checkpoints only in rare cases. In this regard, the Russian Foreign Ministry strongly encourages all interested organizations to send representatives to Hong Kong, and the citizens who commit private travel, mandatory advance Hong Kong to issue a visa. When visiting Macau under Russian PTD as tourists for up to fourteen days visa is issued at the border crossings. The cost of entry - exit tourist visa is approximately $ 15.
Official holidays in China are as follows: January 1 (New Year's), January-February (Spring Festival, New Year in the Chinese lunar calendar, three days a week), March 8 (International Women's Day), March 12 (Day tree planting), May 1 (Day International Workers), May 4 (China youth Day), June 1 (International Children's Day), August 1 (Day of the People's Liberation army of China), 10 September (teacher's Day), 1 October (National Day of the PRC, two output ).
In different provinces in China have local holidays. When planning a business trip it is necessary to pay attention to the period of the New Year according to the Chinese lunar calendar. Some entrepreneurs do not work for a week before and after the New Year.
The Chinese people tend to respect for knowledge and learning, books. Chinese greet each other with a handshake. Entrepreneurs must have a business card, on which the text should be in Chinese (preferably gold paint) and in English (not red). Chinese is extremely economical, trying to quickly accumulate capital. China has taken a lot to do informally, the "left".
Traditional cuisine China
Uniform for the entire country is simply no kitchen - regional variations are so numerous and original, and the methods of processing and feed products are so different "from neighbors", that at least with a certain measure of generalization can only talk about regional traditions.
For Chinese cuisine is characterized by very carefully chosen each other, often in a very unusual combination of ingredients, with the value of all the parameters are, because it is a subtle combination of product features as they find here, and gives the dish its flavor. All products are carefully handled carefully, which takes up a third of the total time of cooking. The entire heat treatment (raw products are not used, even vegetables) is performed very rapidly, with each component of the dish is processed separately. Usually all the ingredients are very finely chopped and always use different spices, herbs and sauces, of which there are more than three hundred. All dishes are divided into daily (very simple), national (most restaurants make up the menu) and the front (refined and quite expensive).
Allocated 5 basic culinary schools - Shandong, Sichuan, Guangdong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (often combined into one "yanchzhouskuyu" school). In Shandong kitchen occupy an important place soups and seafood dishes, with local dishes much less fat. Sichuan cuisine is famous for its sharpness and exotic dishes. Guangdong cuisine dishes are different from only the freshest products and less acute. In Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhenjiang, spread steaming and simmer and careful preservation of the natural flavor of the product. In turn, these culinary schools are divided into 20 culinary styles - Beijing, Shanghai, Henan, Hubei Provincial, Muslim, vegetarian and so on. D. Moreover, there is a great variety of local cooking schools, in which many independent recipes and cooking methods.
Of national characteristics can be noted the widespread use of rice, soybeans and vegetables. A variety of porridge of rice, sorghum, maize or millet and used as a substitute for bread, and as the main "carrier" for other meals. Soybeans, the main substitute for meat in the Chinese table, and goes on cooking oil, soy milk, salty paste made from soybean curd "doufu" and numerous sauces. Equally popular and articles of flour and dough - dozens of varieties of noodles and pasta, cakes and bread, tortellini and ravioli, dumplings "mantou" and pies "baozi", "Wonton" and numerous articles in batter. Play a great role vegetables that are served in different combinations to many dishes, as well as pickled, salted soy sauce, fermented and dried. Especially popular are the bamboo shoots (served boiled, toppings and as a self-starter), all kinds of cabbage, sweet potatoes, potatoes, radish different varieties, green bunching onion, garlic, tomatoes, peppers, spinach and green bean pods. Meat is used much less frequently. The most widely used are pork and poultry, as well as fish and seafood, again subjected to special treatment. Milk and dairy products are not used.
The most popular drink in China - green tea, which is drunk very hot and almost no sugar. There are a huge number of varieties of green tea grown in different provinces, each of which has its own special set of color and aroma. Black tea drink only the national minorities. Chinese tea ceremony "gongfu cha" on the complexity of the ritual can compete with the famous Japanese.
Vodka is a traditional drink in China, but it usually insist on different ingredients, unusual taste, and has a specific smell, though strong enough. Very widespread light and strong rice beer - quite cheap and quality. The best varieties are considered "Qingdao" and "Wu Xing".
Political system China
Peoples Republic of China. Communist republic. Head of State - President of China. The highest organ of state power - the National People's Congress with a permanent representative body - the Standing Committee.
China ranks first in the world in terms of population, more than 1.3 billion people.
Import and export of local and foreign currency is unlimited. Bring cash, travelers checks and payment cards can be any amount. When the trafficking cash amount over $ 5,000. USA, you must specify the amount available in the customs declaration. Duty levied on imported goods are the following: more than 1.5 liters of alcoholic beverages, more than 400 cigarettes, 100 cigars or 500g. tobacco. The product with the content of the precious metal more than 50 grams. must be declared and removed the passenger at the opposite border crossing. Banned the export of antiques and works of contemporary artists and calligraphers without special permission. Flammable materials, aerosols, hair spray, lighter gas and sharps, should be packed in checked baggage, as they will not be missed in the luggage in hand luggage.
Medical aid China
When entering the country are required to present a completed "card quarantine control." Persons arriving in China from the regions where documented cases of "yellow fever", are required to provide a certificate of vaccination. Persons infected with fever, diarrhea, AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, as well as having a mental disorder, or an open form of tuberculosis necessarily bring the above information to the card quarantine control.
Medical insurance for the period of stay in China is not a prerequisite for obtaining an entry visa to China. However, we recommend out medical insurance for the period of stay in the country, as all medical services for foreign citizens, including emergency medical care in China provided on a paid basis.
Working hours China
Shops are open daily from 9.00 to 19.00. In major cities, most shops are open until 22.00. In private shops you can bargain.
In any city of China tour program should be started early in the morning. All the temples, parks, palaces, etc. work from nine o'clock in the morning till five, up to a maximum of six o'clock in the evening. Moreover, the sale of tickets ends one hour before closing.
Banks, where it is possible to change the currency in the larger cities are open until 20:00.
The main mode of transportation between cities in China - the railway. In passenger trains have cars four classes: soft sleeping, sleeping hard, soft chairs, sit tight. Tickets are checked at the entrance to the platform, landing on the train, at the exit from the platform.
If, in response to a request to sell the ticket was answered "Mayo" (no, you can not, I can not), it sometimes helps to answer "in Soúgia" (it should be). If not available from city rail service, you have to use the coaches. The bus ride will be cheaper, but travel conditions are far from comfortable.
Many hotels have their own coach that can deliver customers to the airport and the attractions of Beijing. Tickets are normally sold in the lobby.
Taxi. In Beijing, a great number of taxis. Taxis can be caught at any time of the day. The fare paid by the meter. Price per kilometer, depending on the class of taxi ranges from 1.40 yuan to 2.50 yuan (sticker price for 1 km. Attached to the side window of the car). Starting price of the counter - is a payment for the first 4 kilometers. During the stay, at night and during the movement in traffic rate increases. Installed on the roof of a taxi yellow sign with the words in English TAHI. Recently, a new type of taxi with a rate of 1.2 yuan per kilometer.
Subway. Beijing subway consists of two branches. The trip between the two stations takes about 4 minutes. Important stop for tourists - it's Taoist Temple White Clouds (Bayyunguan), the Military Museum and Beijing Shijingshan Amusement Park. Sign metro - gray square cement building, the ticket price - 2 yuan. Opening hours: 5.00 - 22.30.
Bike - it is a favorite means of transportation Beijingers. In Beijing, more than 8 million. Bike. Morning and evening rush hours in the streets of Beijing transport crowded with bikes, which creates an amazing picture for the first time foreign tourists staying in China. In Beijing, a very smooth roads, so ride a bike very comfortable. It is particularly convenient to ride a bike on areas of traditional buildings, where it is very narrow lanes. Fee for storage of bicycles parked 1-2 jiao. Some shops and hotels provide bikes for hire. Hotels usually require a deposit of 200-800 yuan and take for bike use an hourly fee of 4 yuan. Close to shopping center "Cytec" (Zwick) located office rental bicycles. Ordinary bicycle costs 5 yuan / hour, 40 yuan / day, mountain / speed bike - 8 yuan / hour, 50 yuan / day.
Drivers in China often ignore traffic rules on paying attention to the traffic lights, so the best way out of this situation - to pull myself together and move confidently in the right direction. The Chinese themselves cross the street without turning his head, ignoring any form of transport.
Pedicabs. Travel to Beijing, using the services of pedicabs - is an unforgettable event. Although pedicabs, on duty at the hotel while waiting for customers often ask a rather high price, but you should definitely go.
Line voltage in the country is 220, but in some areas it may be much lower. Whereas, as a rule, should be applied adapter.
Tipping is not customary, but the maid or porter at the hotel will not give up 1-2 yuan.
In China, dress up pretty normally, so you should not take with them something special and extravagant. For formal events grab a jacket and tie, suit or strict dress. It is best to use a small but capacious bags or bags with wheels. Prepare yourself for the fact that you have to often change clothes, the weather is changeable in China. With the film, all kinds of toiletries problems you will not. Taking with him the necessary set of medicines and an extra pair of glasses (if you use glasses).
Helpful information China
Fire service - 119 Police - 110 Ambulance - 120, information and help - 117, the weather - 121.