Egypt - a famous resorts with magnificent sandy beaches, the extraordinary beauty of the underwater world of the Red Sea, the Great Pyramids of Giza, the sacred river Nile, the temples of Luxor and other great monuments of ancient civilization.
Egypt - a country located in North Africa. The country is bounded on the north Mediterranean coast, in the south is bordered by Sudan, on the west by Libya, and on the east boundary runs along the coastline of the Red Sea and on land with Israel. The River Nile divides the country into two unequal parts, while the Suez Canal separates the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt.
Within the Nile Valley and Delta is a fertile land with abundant vegetation, which holds more than 90 percent of the population. The rest of the landscape - mostly monotonous desert, devoid of vegetation, except for the few remaining havens. People dwell in the narrow strips of the Mediterranean coast and the African coast of the Red Sea.
Coast south of Suez has fine beaches, coral reefs and coastal attract many divers. High Dam in Aswan, now holds the key to the annual floods that once filled a large part of the valley of the Nile: The dam also provides electricity in the region.
The structure also includes Egyptian Sinai Peninsula.
The capital - Cairo.
Luxor - a small town on the right bank of the Nile, located 400 miles south of Cairo on the site of the ancient Febisa. There is no other city where the focus would be such a huge number of ancient monuments - this is almost a third of all the historical relics, a world center of archeology.
Here are the ruins of the majestic temple of Amun, whose construction was begun by Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1455-19 BC) His subsequent pharaohs continued to build up to the Greco - Roman period, inclusive. Luxor and Karnak, which is located north of Luxor and connect it to the avenue of sphinxes, were the most important sanctuaries of ancient Egypt.
On the walls of the Luxor Temple inscribed inscription in honor of the victory of Ramses II over the Hittites and other valuable texts. At the entrance to the temple stood two colossal statues of Ramses II and two obelisks, one of which in 1861 was transferred to Paris. On the east bank of the Nile, in the City of the Living, the temples and palaces of Luxor and Karnak facades turned to the dawn sun.
Pyramids of Giza are world-renowned ancient monuments. Of the seven wonders of the world, they remain only. Of the three pyramids of Chephren Pyramid, also called the second pyramid, best known for its huge size. Only its base covers an area of 216 square meters. m.
In front of the Great Pyramid is the famous Sphinx with the body of a lion and a human head. Every night there are light show that adds mystery to this place.
107 rooms of the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities were built in 1900 by the French architect and open to the public in 1902 The collection itself dates back to 1835, when the service was established on the Protection of Antiquities of Egypt, whose task was to protect the property of the state and stop the theft from archaeological sites. Today, the museum has an incredible amount of antiquities.
The most popular exhibits are the subjects of the pyramid of Tutankhamen - there are about 1700, including the famous golden mask of the boy pharaoh. The total number of objects on display in the museum, is 120,000.
Temple of Karnak - a vast complex, consisting of three main temples, several smaller temples and churches, which are outside of it. The most magnificent of all these temples is the Temple of Amun. It can be reached by walking along the Road of Sphinxes that once connected the temples of Karnak and Luxor, and ran through Thebes, which was the capital of Egypt during the Middle and New Kingdom.
The entire complex was built over 1,300 years, it includes the most exquisite examples of design and architecture of ancient Egypt. Among them is Hypostyle Hall, which is considered one of the greatest architectural sites in the world - 130 columns incredible size covers an area of 6000 square meters. m., as well as the only surviving of the four previously standing obelisk of Thutmose I, whose height is 22 m.
Cairo - capital of Egypt, the largest city not only the country but also the whole of Africa! Cairo was founded in 969. To the north of the Greater Fustat Fatimids founded the new city of El Qahira (translation - "invincible"), which evolved into the modern Cairo. From 1250 to 1517 ruled the Mamelukes, by order of which the city had been built many mosques, mausoleums, schools Koran.
In 1805, reformer Muhammad Ali gave Cairo features of the capital city. Cairo is located a bit north of the place where more than 3 thousand years BC was Memphis - the capital of the ancient Egyptian kingdom.
Center of modern Cairo - Al-Tahir Square on which the basic state and public organizations in Egypt, as well as the headquarters of the Arab League. On the same area in a massive building houses the Egyptian Museum - one of the most famous museums in the world. The Egyptian Museum was founded in 1858 by French Egyptologist Mariette O.. Within its walls a rich collection of works of art and culture of ancient Egypt, including the treasures of the tomb of Tutankhamen.
Currently, the museum has more than 100 thousand exhibits. From the square, Al-Tahir depart two streets that do not pass anyone, whether in Cairo, at least a day or two. This street Talaat Harb and Qasr al-Nil - trade and business artery of modern Egyptian capital. Along them lined with shops, small cafes, offices, banks, companies, aviation agencies, cinemas.
Old Cairo today - suburban district of the capital. It is located on the east bank of the Nile. Old quarters, preserved almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, are striking in their wretchedness. Labyrinths of crooked streets, dilapidated houses, deprived of basic amenities. Looking at them only from the window of a luxury bus, passing by at high speed - so less visible.
To the north of the Citadel is City of the Dead - the largest necropolis in the world, the most ancient tombs which date back to the XV century. Located near the Citadel and the Muslim University of Al-Azchar which prepares higher Sunni clergy.
Nearby is the Great Mosque of Cairo Seidna El Hussein. In this mosque, built in the late XIX century, denied entry to non-Muslims. Behind the mosque al-Hussein Seidna begins a famous Cairo bazaar of Khan el-Halley. On this vast picturesque market place are products of local artisans. Khan el-Halley can buy anything your heart desires tourist, except alcoholic beverages and beer.
Sharm El Sheikh - one of the most beautiful corners of our planet. Scenic expanse of the resort will carry you away from everyday life. Lack of cities, factories and gives Sharm El Sheikh huge advantage, because it is here that you will be able to breathe clean air, which is so lacking in modern cities.
Opposite unaffected by civilization mountains and deserts are the luxury hotels where you can relax in the lush gardens. Sharm El Sheikh is striking for its diversity in the plant world: variety, amazing in its beauty, flowers, different types of trees and palms. Coast spacious beaches buried in the soft sand. Purest bright turquoise sea and gentle blue water pools creates a unique contrast to the multicolored canyons, magnificent beauty of rocks and amber golden sand.
Currently, Sharm El Sheikh is one of the most popular and that a lot of important, affordable resorts in Egypt. Despite the absence of the city itself, there are modern-developed infrastructure luxury hotels, as well as a wide range of services. Here you can enjoy a variety of countries: a wide variety of restaurants to satisfy any gourmet tastes.
Hurghada - a resort town on the Red Sea coast. Is the administrative center of one of the 26 provinces of Egypt - Red Sea Province. The resort consists of the old center "El Dahar" (or in English. "Down-town"), the New center "Sakkala" (which is a McDonald's restaurant, and where the count of all the distances in our descriptions hotels) and almost continuous chain of hotels stretching along the coast to the north and south of the city with a total length of nearly 40 km.
In addition, outside of Hurghada in cozy bays (Makadi Bay and Soma Bay) there are small tourist centers with its own infrastructure and hotels, which are still technically belong to Hurghada, but in the future will develop into independent resorts.
Safaga - small Egyptian resort on the Red Sea coast, 40 km south of Hurghada. Long before Hurghada appeared as a point on the map, was Safaga port town on the coast. Converted into a resort in Safaga has become the mid-1980s. Construction boom of hotels, so converts the neighboring Hurghada for some 15-20 years, hardly touched Safaga. Currently, it employs a total of 9 tourist class hotels, mainly category 3-4 *, 5 * hotels available.
Resort Marsa Alem - this is one of the newest resorts in Egypt on the Red Sea coast, which originated 280 kilometers south of Hurghada, on the site of a small fishing village. Resort Marsa Alem in its present state it can be recommended only for diving, because it is the sea and the underwater world on this stretch of coastline are the main attraction of the resort: pristine coral reefs, rich marine fauna, which vote divers surpasses even national marine nature reserve of Ras Mohammed .
Abu Simbel - one of the most famous sights of Egypt. Both Abu Simbel temple was carved out of the sandstone cliffs towering over the Nile, in 1257 BC according to the order of Pharaoh Ramses II (1304-1237 BC). The most well known 4 a whopping 20-foot statue of the pharaoh Ramses II, standing at the entrance to the temple, but in fact they were dedicated to the sun god Re-Gerahte.
Temples, which were discovered in 1813 by a Swiss explorer Burckhardt, stood for a time, until in 1970 the dam was not built in Nasser, causing the water level in the lake has increased significantly. With the support of UNESCO for 4 years (1964-1968), the temple was moved to higher ground.
Hatshepsut temple - the temple erected in honor of the death of Queen Hatshepsut. Located on the West Bank of Luxor, this magnificent temple was built by the architect Senenmut, in honor of the only woman who ruled Egypt as pharaoh. Temple, with its magnificent walls, beautiful terraces, elegant columns and hieroglyphic drawings also tells the story of Hatshepsut travel to the country, which is believed to be a modern Somalia. From this trip, she brought such treasures as ebony, ivory, gold and myrrh trees.
The climate is a narrow coastal strip along the Mediterranean Sea - subtropical, in the rest of the territory - a deserted tropical. The air is extremely dry, year round cloudy, rains are very rare.
Time behind Moscow for one hour.
The main languages in Egypt - Arabic (official). English and French - are widespread.
The national currency of Egypt - Egyptian Pound. A bargaining chip is piaster (PT). One Egyptian pound is equal to 100 piastres. Paper piastres are in denomination of 25 and 50 coins of 5, 10, 25 pounds Paper 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100.
Credit cards are accepted at most major hotels, but they are not always accepted in shops. Credit card type Euro / Master Card and Visa, many banks also pay cash. Do not discard the help of currency exchange on Egyptian pounds - they need with the payment at the hotel.
Validity of passport should not be less than 3 months. Visa for tourists for up to one month is made at the airport on arrival, there is taken a consular fee of 15-25 dollars.
Children under 14 years listed in a parent's passport, a separate visa will not be issued, they fit into the visa parent.
According to the 1986 census, more than 94 percent of the population is Muslim; most of the others - Christians. All types of Christianity are represented, especially the Coptic Christian Church. There is also a small Jewish community.
January 7, 2006 - Coptic Christmas.
January 10 - The Great Feast.
January 31 - Islamic New Year.
April 24 - Coptic Easter.
April 25 - Day of Freedom.
May 1 - Labor Day.
June 18 - Day of Evacuation.
July 23 - Revolution Day.
August 15 - Wafa'a el Nil (flooding of the Nile).
September 11 - Coptic New Year.
October 6 - Armed Forces Day.
October 22 - Feast of Bayram (End of Ramadan).
October 24 - Day of Victory in Suez.
December 23 - Victory Day.
Marked unofficial holidays that celebrate the Coptic Christians.
Muslim holidays are based on the lunar cycle, and the dates above - average. During the lunar month of Ramadan that precedes the Bairam Feast, Muslims can eat and drink during the day (in the evening) before the holiday. Some restaurants are closed during the day, but most of the attractions, and the hotel is not close. Part of the different institutions may be closed within three Great Holiday.
The Muslim faith determines the rhythm of life of the Egyptians. This is evident from a purely external features: for example, five times a day through a loudspeaker, the muezzin call the faithful to prayer. And in the month of Ramadan night becomes day. Muslims fast all day and break the fast only after sunset. At this time, public life fades, government agencies work only from 10.00 to 14.00.
Islamization almost completely eradicated customs Pharaonic era, with the exception, perhaps, of belly dance. However, radical Muslims declared him so implacable war, backed by the threat of force, that a growing number of dancers prefer to remain without work. Incidentally, many of these priestesses of art - pupils of European schools of dance.
Islam has on the family and society is immeasurably greater impact than Christianity. The basis of secular law in Egypt constitutes a set of rules of Islamic law - Sharia, which, however, operates in a gentle way. For example, in Egypt renounced such severe punishment, such as amputation of hands for theft. Attempts are being made to bring together the Sharia and modern legislation.
Egypt - extremely welcoming country. Guests are always welcomed with open hearts. You looked ask about work and family, about your impressions of Egypt. Also cordially invite you to visit, if only for a cup of tea.
Russian citizens restrictions on movement in the country is not, however, single trip to the south of the country, especially in Luxor and Aswan, undesirable.
Traditional cuisine Egypt
Classic Egyptian breakfast consists of two main dishes: Fulya and felyafiley (or taameya).
Ful - it boiled beans in sour sauce with spices and herbs, sometimes with the addition of finely chopped vegetables. Filyafili - a vegetarian cutlets frayed legumes. In addition to this dish is served sauce Tejina (frayed sesame seeds and nuts with olive oil, spices), in which the course of the meal, you need to dip the bread-aish, a salad of fresh vegetables, salad gebnya (cheese type cheese mixed with vegetables). To wash down all this should be iced tea, hibiscus petals of the so-called Sudanese rose, we better known under the name of "Pharaonic tea."
On weekdays lunch Egyptians is not very tight. The most popular lunch dish - sheepyards. Title is a bit intimidating, but nothing dreadful in this dish is not. It's just boiled beans, kidney beans, lentils and other grains, mixed with fried onions. All this fiery liquid poured from bottle fed immediately. Egyptians as fakirs, accustomed to sharp objects, swallowing his portion. Europeans do it with caution, with tears in his eyes. In Cairo, for an impressive portion folds can pay as little as 1 pound.
If you have time, you can eat more thoroughly, for example, fish Tagin (assorted seafood, baked in a pot).
In spite of all modern nutritionists, the main focus of your diet Egyptians do for dinner. Dinner for them - the longest sitting. First you need to warm up a variety of hot and cold snacks. Enjoy gebnya (something like fried ravioli with cheese), easy walk to vegetable salads and tap basturma, try to open the Europeans acting on stewed eggplant with garlic. You can now go to the main dishes. Be sure to try the grilled pigeon stuffed with porridge. Pigeons are specially bred with gastronomic purpose. Some Egyptians eat them along with the bones.
Do not die of hunger will allow you to include a hot dish - kebab jacket accompanied by a cup of rice. Jacket - a sausage made of ground beef kebab - the same kebab, but not marinated. In the classic version it all cooked on an open fire.
For dessert served sugary-sweet, soaked with honey syrup and sprinkled with grated nuts various pastries, on part of which the Egyptians are masters.
Political system Egypt
Republic. Head of state: President Mohammad Hosni Mubarak in 1981, the prime minister Ahmed Nazif since 2004.
Population - more than 76 million. Persons.
The following goods may be imported into Egypt without incurring customs duty: 200 cigarettes or 25 cigars or 200 grams of tobacco; 11 alcoholic beverages; 1 bottle of perfume or cologne;
Note: People traveling with valuable electronic equipment, such as cameras, video cameras or computers are required to list their passports to ensure that they are exported to the departure.
Prohibited items: Drugs, guns, cotton, gold and silver, gained in the country, if only for personal use and in small quantities; for a detailed listing of contact with the Egyptian Commercial Office (Egyptian Commercial Office), 23 South Street, London W1L 2XD (phone: (020) 7499 3002, fax: (020) 7493 8110).
Medical aid Egypt
Before the trip, better to take out insurance. Teeth treated in Egypt is not recommended.
Working hours Egypt
Banks and government offices are open every day except Friday and Saturday from 8:30 to 15:30. Shops at the resorts are usually open from 10:00 to 13:00 and from 17:00 to midnight. Official holiday in Egypt is Friday.
Regular flights to Egypt operate "Aeroflot" (4 weekly flights from Moscow to Cairo, 4:00), Egypt Air (1 flight per week from Moscow to Cairo) and "Siberia" (two weekly flights from Moscow to Hurghada and Sharm el-Sheikh). A number of airlines offering flights to the transfer.
Charter flights are carried out in droves all year round from many Russian cities in Hurghada, Sharm El Sheikh, Taba and Marsa Alam. Tickets for charter flights around $ 200-220.
Regular flights are operated from Cairo to Amman, Tel Aviv, Damascus, Beirut, Larnaca, Istanbul, Dubai, Khartoum and other cities in the region. Standard air fare in both directions from Amman to Cairo is not less than $ 250. In this case, it makes sense to consider the option of a flight from Sharm El Sheikh to Amman, these flights shall airline Royal Jordanian 5 times a week. The cost of a round trip ticket is $ 160-180. Flight is accomplished with a brief stopover in Aqaba, and you can buy a ticket to it, which will reduce the fare to $ 120 in both directions.
Fee at departure:
In Hurghada airport fee is charged upon departure: from January 1 to May 1, 2007 - $ 3 per person; from May 1 to October 1, 2007 - $ 4 per person. In other airports in the country until all is still, and taxes are levied.
On the ferry:
Regular passenger ferries from Nuweiba and Sharm el-Sheikh to Aqaba, Jordan. Direct buses Cairo-Amman follow the schedule and arrive exactly to departure. The estimated cost of the passenger ticket on the car ferry to one side is $ 30 for fast and comfortable boat - $ 45. Flights are operated by "Arab Bridge". From Aqaba speedboat leaves daily except Saturdays, at 13.00, and in the opposite direction at 16.00. Cargo ferry departs from Aqaba to 15.00 and back at 22.00.
The only border crossing point through which the connection of Egypt with Sudan - a ferry from Aswan to Wadi Halfa. The journey takes 20-23 hours, steam 2 times a week departs from the Aswan High Dam and follows the south on Lake Nasser passed by Abu Simbel. The ticket price of $ 35 in the first class (cabins with beds) and $ 20 in the hall with seating. Accurate information and schedule should be checked immediately prior to the trip. Theoretically, the arrival of the ferry to Wadi Halfa joined departing passenger train in Khartoum (25 hours on the way), but, as in the case with the ferry, accurate information should be clarified before the trip.
In any case, this train should be in Khartoum 2-3 times a week, and the tourists do not have to spend in the border Wadi Halfa more than 1-2 days. In addition to the ferry you can go to Khartoum by bus or "Lorrie" (lorry, which go in the back of the passengers). It is important to bear in mind that the presence of the Sudanese visas checked even before the ship's departure in Aswan.
By car and on foot:
Three transitions are between Israel and Egypt: CAT "Rafah" in the Gaza Strip, through which all the buses go from Tel Aviv to Cairo (now temporarily closed); PPC "Nitzan" in the Negev desert, 80 kilometers south of Rafah; PPC "Taba" near Eilat, where the direction of travel to the Egyptian resort of Dahab and Sharm el-Sheikh in the south of the Sinai Peninsula.
Crossing the border on foot is possible only through Taboo, in Rafah have to wait associated transportation. It should be borne in mind that, in contrast to Taba, located just 10 kilometers from the Israeli city of Eilat, the border crossing "Rafah" extremely inconvenient for independent travel. This is especially true of the Israeli side of the border, where there is no passenger transport and the only option will be very expensive taxi to the nearest town (Ashkelon, and Beersheba).
The only border crossing with Libya is open to the east of the town of Salloum, on the west of Egypt
Bus and taxi:
Daily buses depart from Cairo Gezira Sheraton Hotel in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem through the Sinai and the transition "Rafah" (now temporarily buses go through Taboo, which lengthens the trip for 2-3 hours). The cost of a one way ticket - $ 40. Round trip - $ 70. From Tel Aviv buses depart daily from the office of "Masada Tours", next door to the Egyptian consulate in the street Basel, 56.
Tourists coming from Israel through the Taba and following in the direction of the Egyptian resort of Nuweiba, Dahab and Sharm el-Sheikh, immediately after leaving the border terminal Taba expect taxi drivers. The fare to Dahab varies between $ 60-80 for the whole car to Sharm el-Sheikh, the amount comes to $ 100. In addition, once a day, in the morning (approximately 7-8 am), from Taba to Sharm el-Sheikh is a bus company East Delta. Routes it to Dahab worth $ 8 to Sharm El Sheikh $ 11.
2 to 3 regular buses depart daily from Cairo to Amman. The path takes about 15-17 hours, and the fare varies from $ 60 to $ 80, depending from the bus company. The price of the ticket includes a ferry from Nuweiba to Aqaba.
Numerous buses and taxis depart from Cairo and Alexandria in the Libyan cities of Tripoli and Benghazi. However, only part of the bus only brings passengers to the border, where they cross it on foot and take the local transportation awaiting them once the border terminal.
Potable water Egypt
Water from the tap is not recommended to drink. To avoid stomach upset, you can not brush your teeth with water from the tap is dirty fruit.
In most of the country's 220 watts., 50 Hz. In some rural areas still use alternating current from 110 to 380 volts.
Tip at a rate of 1-2 lbs usually given service drivers, porters, waiters. The system extends to tip waiters in restaurants and bars, hotel maid and porters, taxi drivers and tour guides, and 5-10% of the order value. Payment tipping is not mandatory, but if a client is happy with the service, a tip - a sign of good taste.
At the hotel you can dress in its sole discretion, but leaving the city, remember that Egypt - an Islamic country, the people here are believers, tradition - Puritan. Should respect local traditions, because you still have them on the road. Bare shoulders and mini skirts are inappropriate for street walking.
These Muslims do not drink alcohol, but usually do not mind when others do it. Not taken photographs of local people without their permission, to criticize Islam, there is smoke outside. It is not necessary to go to the Sunday bazaars alone, they are considered the crime area.
No matter which hotel in Sharm you relax, keep in mind that to enter the sea Do you need special shoes that can be purchased at any store in Egypt. It is available in all sizes and colors, and the cost varies from 8 to 20 dollars. In Hurghada, these shoes are not needed because near shore coral is not, and there is no danger, damage or injure the feet.