France - is one of the oldest states of Europe, its territory is modern in its main features formed in the XV century. France - a country that is admired for its beauty. Not for nothing called a star in Europe France, firstly, its boundary exactly follow the contours of the stars, and secondly, it is actually a star in Europe. This is Paris! Disneyland! Province of Champagne! France - is the historic center, the center of fashion, cosmetics, wine and cooking ...
France - a country in Western Europe. In the north-east it borders with Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the east - with Germany and Switzerland in the south-east - Monaco and Italy to the south-west - with Spain and Andorra.
Sea coast, stretching for 3,120 km, bordering the North Sea and the Mediterranean, the Straits of Pas-de-Calais, the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay. The western and northern parts of the country are plains in the center and east - high mountains of the French Massif Central, Vosges and Jura. South-western border is the Pyrenees in the south-east - the Alps, the highest mountain in Western Europe. The total area of the country (including islands) is 551.6 thousand. Sq. km.
The capital of Paris.
France - the concentration of a great number of cultural values, almost every city, and sometimes small villages, are a veritable museum of history and culture. In addition to the numerous cultural sites and ancient civilizations, the country has excellent natural conditions - snow-white slopes of the Alps, the beautiful beaches of the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, medieval castles, vast vineyards and charming old distilleries, as well as many places connected with the life and activities of the various historical figures.
Cultural center of the country, of course, is noisy and chaotic Paris - capital of France from the tenth century. n. e., literally overrun by millions of tourists from around the world. Sightseeing in Paris are found at every turn. Ile de la Cité and Saint Louis form the historic city center. Sita is Notre Dame ("Notre-Dame de Paris") - "the heart of Paris." This Catholic church, founded in 1160 and completed only in 1245, is a five-day basilica (length - 130 m., Width - 108 m., Internal height - 35 m.), Which is a masterpiece of Gothic art. Cathedral literally affects its magnificent towers, bell tower, gallery, stained glass windows and statues decorated portals. Front of the Cathedral is a small circle with the "0 km." - The origin of distances across France. Nearby is the oldest prison and Paris - Conciergerie.
The main tourist part of the city lies on the right bank of the Seine. Here is the former royal residence, and now one of the largest and richest museums in the world - the Louvre. Now here is collected about 300 thousand. Works of all styles and periods of art, from antiquity down to the middle of the XIX century, united in a 7 "departments" - painting, graphics, sculpture, applied arts, as well as Eastern, Greek and Roman antiquity, the ancient Egyptian collection. Not far from the Louvre and other monuments are located on the right bank - Exchange, Temple, Arc de Triomphe on the Place de Gaulle (height - 49.54 m., Width - 45 m., Arch height - 29.19 m.) To the tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the eternal fire , "the most beautiful street in the world" - the Champs-Elysees, which are luxury shops, car dealerships, famous restaurants and cafes, as well as the residence of the President of France - Elysee Palace and government offices. In the same area there is a large arch of La Defense - the largest business center in Europe, the exhibition center "Grand Arch" with transparent walls, Place de la Concorde (one of the biggest Parisian squares - 84 thousand. Sq. M.) With the ancient Luxor column, the largest opera house in the world - the Opera Garnier, the futuristic National Museum of Modern Art ("Centre Pompidou") in the quarter Beaubourg (one of the oldest districts in Paris), the exhibition is the painting and sculpture of the twentieth century. Not far from it there are the Museum of History of Paris "Carnival" with a collection of interiors royal apartments, the city layout and furniture and living conditions, bright fountain "Tingelli" and a small private Dolls Museum. And along the way from the Louvre to the Champs Elysees, in the Tuileries Gardens, is a small building of the Museum and the National Museum of Impressionism "Orangerie de Tuileries." In the Marais district ("swamp") interested in Place des Vosges (the Royal Square) with red and white Pavilions King and Queen and the house-museum of Victor Hugo.
On the left, a high bank of the Seine, is the famous Eiffel Tower (1889, the height of the antennas 320 m.), Palais de Chaillot, Les Invalides with the Cathedral and the tomb of Napoleon, the Pantheon - the Temple of Fame for the burial of the great men of the country, with the tombs of Rousseau, Zola, Curie, Hugo, Voltaire, Mirabeau and others., as well as the Sorbonne (University of Paris, 1215) - one of the largest educational and research centers in the world, in whose territory the Church of the Sorbonne to the tomb of Cardinal Richelieu. Be sure to visit the Field of Mars and the Luxembourg Gardens. National Museum of the Middle Ages ("Baths of Cluny", 1843) is located in the heart of the Latin Quarter, on the spot, where the Roman baths, the remains of which are still preserved and are now part of the museum exhibition, famous collection of tapestries, paintings, works of applied art and wooden religious sculpture of the Middle Ages.
The highest point in Paris - Montmartre ("Hill of Martyrs", 129 m.), Which goes to the funicular. Montmartre is a symbol of French culture, a haven of artists and musicians. Symbol of Montmartre - Sacre Coeur (1876-1919 g), which offers a magnificent view of Paris. Next to the Basilica - Hill area, where there are street artists, here are plenty of souvenir shops and small restaurants. Close - Museum of Montmartre area abessive the town hall and the church of St. unusual. St. John the Evangelist of red brick, the area of Marseille with Aimé monument depicting half-emerged from the wall of man (an illustration of the story M. Aime), and Place du Tertre with the legendary cabaret "Artful rabbit. "If you go down to the Place Pigalle on the street. Germain Pilon, it opens a famous cabaret "Moulin Rouge", and on the rue Lepic is the only real city windmill - Moulin de la Galette,. There will also be erected "Wall of Love" in the area of 40 square meters. m., inscribed with the phrase "I love you" in 311 languages, including Braille for the blind, as well as in sign language for the dumb.
Paris - now the focus of museums and exhibitions. In addition to the Louvre are more than 300 permanent exhibits, among which the most interesting museum of monumental art in France with an extensive collection of copies of French monuments and historic buildings layouts, Musée Nissim de Camondo - works of decorative art of the XVIII century., City gallery on Rue Dauphine, Mazarin , Bozar and the Avenue Matignon and Montaigne - modern sculpture and painting, the National Museum of Oriental Art ("Guimet") - Oriental art from Afghanistan to Japan, the National Museum of Popular Arts and Traditions - an extensive collection of traditional crafts and other items, the Army Museum at Les Invalides - A large collection of weapons, armor, ammunition and banners of the Middle Ages, and the Rodin Museum is devoted entirely to the well-known sculptor, also here a nice collection of Impressionists. Interested in the Grand Palais ("Grand Palace") - a magnificent architectural structure and location of the permanent collections and exhibitions, the Museum of Painting d`Orse in the old railway station - one of the best museums in France with an extensive and varied collection, the original wine museum dedicated to the history of French wine starting from the XIV century., and has a small tasting room, a unique museum of coins in the premises of the old Mint (XVIII c.), the only one of its kind Postal Museum in Montparnasse and many others.
At least good and the suburbs of Paris. Versailles - the most famous specimen of the palace and park art in Europe. This is a huge residence of French kings - the Palace of Versailles, the facade of which one has a length of 680 m., Extensive park (100 ha), Latona Fountain and many other beautiful fountains, served as the prototype of the Peterhof, garden lake, numerous luzhayki- "parterres" and plant architecture "bosquets" the most unimaginable forms of artificial caves, many sculptures, royal house and many restaurants in the most picturesque places of the park. Summer at Versailles grandiose light show "Sound and Light". Malmaison is a beautiful palace complex with a huge park and fountains. The small town of Rambouillet, southwest of Paris, the summer residence of French presidents, famous for its castle of Rambouillet (XIV c.), A huge English park and beautiful lake. Palace of Fontainebleau served as the hunting residence of the French kings, since the XII century, now here is the Museum of furniture, carpets and paintings, carefully groomed huge gardens and parks, as well as the famous "France Miniature" - a small (1:30) A copy of France. To the south-west of Paris is famous Chartres, famous for its cathedral of Notre Dame ("Chartres Cathedral", XII c.), The walls and towers which are decorated with a variety of "gargoyles" - fantastic beasts and demons, though descended from engravings by Durer.
But the greatest number of visitors attracted to Euro Disneyland (32 km. From Paris in the town of Marne-la-Vallee) - the largest in Europe (1943 hectares) park. This is not just a park, and the whole country, conventionally divided into the five "countries" - the country of adventure "Edvencherlend" fantasy land "Fentezilend" country of the future "Diskaverilend" country "Wild West" - "Frontirlend" and main street - "Maine Street. "Here, every day there are hundreds of attractions, parades and shows, a real train ply swim pirate frigates and ship the days of Mark Twain, smoked geysers and "explode" volcanoes, open the treasure cave, working real tunnels and suspension bridges, as well as "live" a lot of wild animals and fairy-tale characters, from Snow White and Quasimodo to heroes Indiana Jones and "Star Wars" Lucas. In order not to get lost in this extravaganza of attractions at the entrance sure to take a map!
Sea coast of France stretches for 3120 km. Gloomy cliffs of Brittany, long ridges of dunes of the Atlantic, the wonderful beaches and coves of the Mediterranean, the beautiful coastline of Corsica and the south-eastern Côte d'Azur ("Riviera"), have attracted millions of tourists.
Relatively small area, only a hundred kilometers from the coast Yeresa to Menton, protected from northern winds of the Alps and the Massif du Mercantour - Cote d'Azur, has long been turned into an "all-European leisure center." The whole coast is dotted with luxury hotels, restaurants, private beaches, boutiques and expensive villas. There are many historical monuments - the old cathedral of Grasse, Valbonne Abbey, a fortified monastery Lerenov, Fort Monalbana, Simiezsky monastery church Lyuserama, Church Bar-sur-Loup, as well as beautiful natural attractions - Gorge de Restefon-Bonnett considered highest gorge of the Alps (2802 m. altitude), a picturesque gorge de Tende, clean mountain rivers and numerous waterfalls.
Nice - "capital" of the Cote d'Azur, which sits on the shore of the bay Baie des Angez ("Bay of Angels"), surrounded by the foothills of the Alpes-Maritimes. Heart of the city - central Promenade des Anglais - luxury seaside boulevard 5 km in length, is the ideal place for hiking and recreation. The city has many palaces, churches and museums - the famous Opera of Nice, Valroz Palace, Cathedral of Saint Reparata (XVII century.) And St. Martin, House kugurdonov, Chapel of Mercy, Castle hill with a castle, a beautiful park and a waterfall, the Museum of Modern Art (MAMAC), Matisse Museum with one of the best exhibitions of the artist, Observatory, church of St. Joan of Arc, the Archaeological Museum and the Museum of Marc Chagall with seventeen paintings depicting scenes from the Old Testament illustrations, gouache, prints and lithographs of the great master. Congress Palace "Acropolis" - the center of business tourism in the region, regularly conducting various exhibitions and performances. In conjunction with the National Theatre of Nice and the Museum of Modern Art, the Palace complex of buildings forms a colorful promenade D`Art. City full of beautiful parks and gardens with statues and fountains. In the East lies the hill Simiez, which are located on the slopes of the Roman arena and the nine palaces Belle Epoque Hotel Regina - the residence of Queen Victoria, Simiezsky monastery with splendid altar and luxurious villas, and in the park "Floral Phoenix" has a tropical garden "Green Diamond" which presents a variety of exotic fish, birds and butterflies. To the west lies a lot of memorable places, reminiscent of Russia - turned into a lyceum Imperial Palace Park acting Russian orthodox church. Nicholas on Boulevard Tsarevich (1912), which is called "Moscow in the heart of Nice." Here is buried the Grand Duke Nicholas and his wife, as well as many Russian emigrants. Nice is not far from Sainte-Marie-de-la-Mer, where every year thousands of Roma, to pay tribute to their patron - St. Sarah.
Cannes (Cannes) is located only 27 km. from Nice on the shore of the bay Napulskoy. It is a city of various festivals and landmarks, beautiful sandy beaches and churches, chapels and ancient houses. The main street of the city - La Croisette - the venue of celebrations and a favorite tourist destination. Of the other attractions of interest to the top of the picturesque Palm Beach, Palais des Festivals and the Avenue of Stars, Red Ladder, Liberty Avenue and the castle-museum of the XII century on a hill Syuke where stretched linkage based Mikhailo Mikhailovich Grand Duke Golf Club, "Auberge Provencale" - the most oldest restaurant in Cannes, the hotel "Royal Casino" and the famous hotel "Carlton". Guided tours by boat to the island Lerens, famous for its eucalyptus forest and the local liqueur, the secret of which is strictly protected by local monks, as well as the fact that there is a famous fortress, which was made a prisoner of the mysterious "Iron Mask." Nearby is Monte Carlo, and between Cannes and Nice is one of the biggest and best in Europe thalassotherapy centers and fitness - "Biovimer."
Menton - the most westerly resort Riviera, located on the border with Italy. Menton called "the capital of lemons," she is known for its cathedral of Saint-Michel, a majestic villa fontanarosa, casino and international music festival, as well as the picturesque Promenade du Solyuil in the old part of the city.
Antibes (ancient Antipolis) - the "youth" of the Riviera and the town center of yachting. There are a lot of clubs, restaurants, bars and discos. The most striking attractions of the city include the Grimaldi castle (XII century.), Picasso Museum, the fortifications of Vauban, villa Thenardier, the Cathedral, a magnificent Provencal market, flower park of 5 hectares area and nursery (2 thousand. Species of trees), museums, Napoleon, Sea Museum and Payne. In the city of wonderful sandy beaches, has its own water park and Dolphinarium.
The whole world and are known for other great resorts Côte d'Azur - Grasse International Museum of Perfume and famous perfume factory "Fragonard" and "Melinar", the center of social life - Saint-Tropez, luxurious (and terribly expensive) Villefranche-sur-Mer, one of the most luxurious resorts in the Mediterranean - Juan-les-Pins, quiet "family" Golfe-Juan, a city cafe in Saint-Raphael, "city of the future" Villeneuve-Lobe and others. coastal department of Nimes-Garon also focused a lot of monuments of the Roman era - circuses , viaducts, villas and so on. d.
Côte d'Argent ("Gold Coast") - it is an endless wide 230-kilometer-long beach with soft sand. To stop the movement of sand dunes in the region, in the XIX century. here were planted pine forests and pinievye, turned today into a continuous forest - the largest in France. Dune de Pyla is the highest in Europe, and the entire chain of dunes stretching along Bassen Arcachon for miles. On the dunes with a fantastic view of the Cap Ferret and Arcachon with its lovely marina and villas. Part of the huge (about 250 square meters. Km.) Gulf Bassen reserved for the "oyster farm", the largest in Europe. Pearls Silver Beach is considered the historic town with its Mimizan Mimizan-beach and the charming port promenade. In the town of Hossegor and Capbreton, separated only by the marina, interesting houses in the Basque style of old pines.
One of the most beautiful cities in the Bay of Biscay is Biarritz, former known European resort in the middle of the nineteenth century. In 1854, for the wife of Napoleon III, here, in the spurs of the Pyrenees, was built Villa Eugenia, on the spot where now stands the Hotel du Palace - the traditional meeting place of "high society" of the country. The town has a picturesque lighthouse, Museum of the Sea Museum, miniature cars, a variety of boutiques, restaurants, tea shops and bars interspersed with quaint villas and small palaces in which the kings and princes were staying during the holidays. Biarritz is famous thalassotherapy institute "Bob Louison", offers an extensive range of treatments, as well as many Spa clinic. Cliffs, framed by sandy beaches adorn the nearby coast to Saint-Jean-de-Luz on the Spanish border.
Burgundy - historical province of France, a crossroad of civilizations and the northern and southern Europe, situated around the Morvan massif in the basin of the Seine, is famous for its lakes and vineyards. This is a unique and blessed land, glorious golden villages, ancient castles and churches, culinary traditions and rivers. The surrounding area has many lakes Saens, district Charolais - is green pastures and meadows. In the heart of Burgundy, in the region of optic neuritis, is the Morvan National Park, which organizes horse riding and hiking. Historic Monuments (which in Burgundy so much about it that they say that it "does not fit within its borders") scattered across her territory - the Church of St.. Mary in grapes (Oxone), the church de Brou, old buildings Bresse, Wesel and Saint-Pierre Fontenay Abbey (founded in 1119, is taken under the auspices of UNESCO in 1981), and others. monastery of Cluny, founded in 910, the walking distance from Macon, has always been a center of intellectual and cultural life of the country. Today it is visited annually by more than 60 thousand. Pilgrims from around the world. Castle Cochet (XI cent.), Located in the department of Saone-et-Loire, is a well-preserved fortress with majestic dungeon, prison tower, deep dungeons and this drawbridge. Castle Pointe St-style "Gothic troubadour", with a powerful dungeon, a gallery and battlements, famous for being the owner was a famous French poet and politician of the XIX century. Alphonse de Lamartine, whose tomb is also located here. One of the most important castles in Macon County - Berz-le-Chatel, famous for its chapel, which was preserved from the X century, as well as three rings of walls, built in the XIII century.
Business Card Burgundy - her fault. Continuous strip from north to south stretch the famous vineyards, wine is considered the center of the ancient Bon, still retained the Flemish influence of culture, especially in architecture. In the Middle Ages the city defended by a deep moat and a fortified castle, whose ramparts and watch towers and today decorate the urban landscape and its moats and ditches turned into parks and gardens. Be sure to visit the Museum of wine or burgundy wine cellars "cava", as well as the surrounding villages, each with its architecture and its local wines.
Chablis is also known from the time of Roman rule. His glorified the monks of the abbey of Shito, the result is unparalleled wine "Chablis" grape "Pinot Noir" is supplied to the royal table. Among the attractions of the city - Collegiate Church of St. Martin (XII century.) Luxury Almshouse triptych (XII century.) With the chapel of St. John the Baptist (XIV c.) And stalls Le Petit Pontin, which includes traditional banquets, performances and "gastronomic techniques" during a holiday wine (celebrated annually on the last Sunday in November).
The main town of the historic area - Dijon. Evidence of its glorious past are Moiseya wells, tombs of the Dukes, Rollin Otunnu Museum, the Museum of Dijon (the second richest exposition of provincial museums in the country), the Gothic church of Notre-Dame (XIII c.), Which are located on the front of the clock "Jacquemart" (1383 .), the center of reformism - the Cathedral of St.. Benigni, the old castle of the Dukes of Burgundy, who is now the Museum of Fine Arts, the ruins of the monastery Shanmol (XIV c.), the Mustard Museum, Museum of Archaeology and others. downtown, numerous private houses, built in the XVI -XVII centuries. Dijon is not the center of winemaking, but around it are located the famous vineyards such as Côte d'Bryuilli, Pouilly-sur-Loire, Latour, Côte d'Nyuts, Côte de Beaune, Jon, Chatillon, Chalon and Beaujolais.
Provence - it is more than 900 km. beaches and coves of the Côte d'Azur to the Camargue, thousands of kilometers of mountain slopes of the Alps just an hour's drive from the beaches, buried in the hills of vineyards, castles and olive groves. Here you can find a lot of interesting things - you can visit the most extensive wine-making in Provence - Cote de Provence, Bandol and Côtes-du-Rhône, Roman monuments Glanum, olive groves (you can even see the production of oil by hand), the canyon of the river Verdon, pottery workshops Moustier or Apta, Aubagne, where do unique porcelain miniatures, the palace-fortress of the Popes, small villages of the Luberon, the Roman amphitheater in Arles and Nimes, near Aix grotto where Mary Magdalene hid, imposing Basilica of Saint-Maxime, villa or Vaison mansions XVII century in Mirabeau.
In the delta of the Rhone to the west of the region lies the famous Camargue Biosphere Reserve, inhabited by pink flamingos and over 300 species of migratory birds live here only southern European population of beavers, as well as terrapins and the famous white horse. Along the coast from the mouth of the Rhone to the Sainte-Marie-de-la-Mer stretched wide, sandy beaches, and the Riviera - is also Provence.
Marseille - the second largest city in France and a huge port with ancient history (founded by the Greeks as Massalia in 600 BC. E.), Known as the "East Gate". Interesting to visit the city to enjoy the small streets of the Old Town ("petticoat"), the old port to Fort St.. Jean and St. Nicholas (1660), the city's symbol - the Roman-Byzantine basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde (1853) with a gilded statue of the Blessed Virgin height of 10 m., and a bronze bell weighing more than 8 tons., 17-storey building, "Shining City", designed by Le Corbusier.
An integral part of Marseille - markets and fairs. Marseilles beaches, certainly not as good as on the Riviera, but comfortable and clean. Prado Beach, located near the metro, is bordered by a beautiful green lawn, reminiscent of the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, gravel makes popular among young people, and Corbières, Fortin and de la Battri nice fine sand. Near Marseille are the islands of Friuli, which is an old sanitary complex, as well as the famous island of If with its castle-prison, famous for the legend of Count of Monte Cristo. On the island is a beautiful view of the city and bay.
Bordeaux - the eighth largest city in France, situated on the south-west of the country near the mouth of the Garonne. It is the center of famous Bordeaux wines and the "gate" in Côte d'Argent. The city can compete with any capital of the world for its historical monuments and temples - the ruins of the palace Gallien (III c.), Grand Theatre (1773-1780 city, built in the image of the Paris Grand Opera), the Cathedral of Saint-André (XII-XIV centuries .), triumphal arch Cayo (built in 1493 to commemorate the victory of Charles VIII at Forno), Archbishop's residence Rohan (1771-1781), the area of the Stock Exchange (1729-1751), the built on the site of a Roman port of Saint church Pierre, Palace Square, Church of St. Eulalie, the church of Sainte Croix, the Church of Saint-Michel with the tallest tower in the south of France (114 m.), the largest square in Europe - esplanade Kenkons or cobbled streets Chartrons quarter, and many other, less interesting monuments.
The most original museum of the city - "Vinorama" in which the wax figures tell the story of winemaking and wine trade in the region. Are nearby and gorgeous "chateau" ("Castle") - Bordeaux vineyards, which are considered some of the best vineyards in the world - Chateau Margaux, Medoc, Pessac Leognan, Graves, from-Briyon, Soterne, Beyshevel, Saint-Julien, Pauillac, Saint Estephe, Lafite and Mouton Rothschild. Each of them not only keeps the ancient traditions of Bordeaux winemakers, but also decorated with beautiful palaces and mansions XVII-XVIII centuries, the most famous of them are the palace Mal, having Montesquieu - La Brad, Château Yquem, a medieval fortress on the peninsula Lamarck Medoc Palace Beyshevel (XVIII-XIX cc.) and Kos.
Brittany is surrounded on three sides by the sea and bordered by numerous bays, headlands and islands (3700 km. Coastline, together with the islands). From the height of the rock Rock Treverzel or abbey of Mont Saint-Michel opened vast panorama highly rugged terrain, reminiscent of Scotland or Ireland. Human influence has transformed the terrain here is so that the Breton landscape, representing an alternation of small fields and meadows to forest and bush strips, even got its own name - "bocage".
Capital of Brittany - a small town Ren. The sights of the city are the old wooden houses (XVI-XVIII centuries.) Into Saint. Anna Basilica of the Savior, the Notre Dame Cathedral, the majestic Palace of Justice, the Museum of Brittany in the Palace Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts. In Nantes, be sure to visit the Ducal castle (XV c.), Which are now in the Museum of Art, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the Maritime Museum, the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul, St-Croix, Museum of Church Art and City Hall XVII. The city is a major center of Quiberon thalassotherapy "Quiberon Thalassa".
Normandy is famous for the beauty of its harsh coasts, shady woods and prestigious resorts - Deauville, Dieppe, Le Tuk, Cabourg and others. There are hundreds of golf courses, casinos, nightclubs, racetracks and other sports facilities, and moored off the coast of fleets yachts - it is one of the most popular yachting centers of Europe. Business Card tourist Normandy - granite island with an ancient abbey of Mont Saint-Michel halfway between Normandy and Brittany. This marvel of architecture on a cliff top, connected to the shore only two-kilometer dam was built from the XI to the XVI century. Be sure to go through the "Royal Gate" on the street Grand Rue, visit the restaurant in one of the tiny houses XV-XVI centuries or crypt "Notre Dame under the earth", climb to the top of the western terrace or visit the casemates of the old state prison.
The largest Norman city - the old Rouen. Sights - the Notre Dame Cathedral (founded in the XIII century., The main buildings XIII-XIV centuries.) In which Joan of Arc was executed, in honor of which is now called the Tower, and a monument to the University, the Palace of Justice, the church of Saint-Maclay (XV cent.) and Saint-Ouen. From city tours depart on the famous "Omaha Beach" and to other places of the Allied landings during the Second World War. In the town Villedyu de Paul is one of the world's oldest workshops for casting bells, while a working museum. In the valley of the River Orne many thermal sources, on the basis of which, a large number of small resorts.
One of the major tourist centers of the country - Reims, located in north-eastern France. This is one of the earliest centers of Christianity in the country (at the beginning of V century. Built here the first cathedral) and place of birth of the Kingdom France. It was here in 496 AD. e. the first Frankish king Clovis to Christianity, and since then there have been anointed to the throne twenty-five kings of France. Here there is also "the main cathedral of France" - Cathedral of Our Lady of Rheims (1210-1275 was repeatedly rebuilt in the XIV-XV centuries.) Longer than 138 m. Wealth painting the cathedral, its elegant architecture and magnificent stained glass windows and arches merge into a strikingly harmonious single ensemble. Near the cathedral is the famous Palace of t o - a former archbishop's palace, transformed today into a museum with a treasure trove of tapestries, liturgical and crown attributes. In 1991, the Cathedral and the Palace of t o have been taken under the protection of UNESCO. Also interested in the archaeological site of the Roman fort and forum, held under the very walls of the cathedral, as well as a Roman arch of Mars (II c.) And the Abbey of Saint-Remi.
Strasbourg, "the capital of a united Europe", is situated in 486 km. from Paris to the German border. City absorbed its appearance the influence of French and German cultures, acquiring his pronounced individuality. The historic center of Strasbourg is located on the island (taken under the auspices of UNESCO in 1988) of the River Ill and the channels. "Big Island" is famous for its numerous historical monuments: the monumental Gothic cathedral of Notre Dame - the highest church in Europe (height 142 m.) Towers in the "Petite France", the web of narrow streets, 6 churches and the Palais Rohan (1732- 1742) - a medieval residence of the princes, and the riding Academy and stud d'Arzhanson. Interested in the former imperial palace of the Rhine, University Library (3 million works!), University Palace with multiple columns and the National Theatre in the former palace of the Diet of Alsace and Lorraine. Near the Parc de l'Orangerie stands the new symbol of the city - a complex of buildings of the Council of Europe, the European Court of Human Rights and the Palais de l'Europe, covering an area of 220 thousand. Sq. m. The city has many museums - Evr-Notre-Dame (Alsatian sculpture and painting of the Middle Ages), Historical, Archaeological Museum, Alsace, Zoological et al., as well as theaters, concert halls and art galleries.
Loire Valley for the abundance of royal castles and palaces are often called "Valley of Castles". Here, the dark towering citadel Langer and Shannon, as well as Renaissance palaces Azay-le-Rideau and Chenonceau. Here are the pinnacles topped with dozens of Renaissance Chambord, Villandry classic, which is one of England's best parks in the country, as well as the majestic Blois and Cheverny.
Weser River Valley has 147 prehistoric sites and 25 caves dating from the Paleolithic era. There is a famous cave of Lascaux, which were discovered about 100 unsurpassed drawings of animals, the artists of the Paleolithic. Valley taken under the auspices of UNESCO in 1979
The historic city of Carcassonne fortress - one of the oldest cities in the world. It existed in this place from time immemorial, in the preceding Roman era, his name has already been mentioned in the manuscripts as an impregnable fortress. By the end of the III. n. e. his fortress already has 36 towers - unprecedented at the time the level of fortification! This is a unique example of a medieval fortified town-fortress, protected by massive walls, within which hides a real medieval city with houses, streets and beautiful Basilica of Saint Nazaire.
Corsica can be rightly added to the "seven wonders of the world." This turbulent rivers with multicolored pebbles, beautiful beaches, quiet coves and granite rocks of the Gulf of Porto, underwater caves, "lunar landscape" of the desert Agriaty, walnut groves the Castagniccia, green mountain valley oak Guizzani Bay Bonifacio with steep coastal cliffs white, clear mountain lakes Agriat, Melo, Gloria, Nina and Capitelli, mountain Monte Cynthia (2710 m.) and another 20 peaks exceeding 2 thousand. meters, soft muscat wine and the church of pink and green marble.
The island's capital - the city of Ajaccio, according to legend, was founded by Ajax, although this is an exaggeration. This is typical of a Mediterranean city, with its narrow streets and bustling port forever. The sights of the city are usually related to the Town Hall to the Museum of Napoleon Bonaparte house on the square Leticia, cozy beaches in the numerous coves and picturesque bay. Be sure to visit the town of Calvi - one of the strongholds of the Genoese, here is an old castle (XIII c.) And the Church of St. John the Baptist (1528). While visiting the island also take a look at the most beautiful port of Corsica - Centuria with its fortified towers of the old fort, the ruins of the castle, the picturesque monasteries and churches, as well as in the coastal town of Bastia with palaces and cathedrals, founded by the Genoese in 1380 Capes Zhirolata, Porto, natural reserve and Scandola Piana Kalanches taken under the auspices of UNESCO in 1983.
Moderate sea, on the east transitional continental, Mediterranean - subtropical. Summer is quite hot (in July and August from +20 C to +25 C), mild winters (in January from 0 ° C to +3 C) and rather crude, although snow is rare. The best time to visit Paris - May and September-October, Riviera - September. Mountain areas have their own microclimate inherent areas of altitudinal zones.
Far from Moscow at 2:00.
State - French. A variety of dialects: Breton - Brittany, Basque and Catalan - in the Pyrenees, Provencal - in Provence, Flemish - Flanders (near Dunkirk) and German (in Alsace and Lorraine) and Italian (southern coast of Corsica) dialects.
Euro (EURO), 1 EURO = 100 EURO cent
Russian citizens wishing to travel to France or another country of the Schengen Agreement, should be required to have a Schengen visa. The basic package of documents required for obtaining a short-term visa at the Consulate of France:
• Hotel reservation (fax) prepaid for 2 days (if the purpose of travel - tourism), or an invitation from the French side (attestation d'accueil), decorated in the French City Hall (original and photocopy), if the purpose of the trip is private. If the purpose of travel business, the invitation should be issued on company letterhead signed by the Director (original and photocopy). The invitation can be stated that the applicant will be accompanied by his wife (the child). In this case, they will have no business and tourist visas. The invitation must specify the address to which the applicant has to reside in France.
• Insurance for Schengen countries for the whole stay.
• Valid passport (valid for at least 3 months after the expiry of the requested visa). If a citizen has a few s / n, then you need to provide them all.
• Inside a Russian passport.
• Old s / n (if any).
• Help with work indicating the position and place of work.
- For students - stud. ticket and photocopy.
- For students - certificate from school, during the summer vacation is needed to transfer the mark to the next academic year.
- For pensioners - a copy of the pension certificate and photocopy.
• For all applicants need proof of financial solvency (bank statements, proof of the last 3 salaries, a certificate of currency exchange or guarantee the sponsor).
• Photo 3x4, glued to the application form, filled in capital letters in French (Demande de visa Schengen) or in English (Application for Schengen visa), in extreme cases, in Russian in Latin characters.
If the applicant has - child (under 18 years), in addition to the basic package must provide the following documents:
- Original and copy of birth certificate.
- Original and copy of permission to travel from both parents (only in France is not enough! Sure to France and the Schengen countries). If a child is traveling with one parent, you need an exit permit from the second parent. If a child is traveling without their parents, it must be notarized and translated into French delegation of parental authority on the accompanying person, or on the receiving side in France. In turn, from an accompanying person needs a notarized document with the translation into French of consent adoption of parental authority. These items may be included in the permit to leave or take the form of three separate documents.
- A photocopy of a single sheet or internal passport of the parents (most importantly, that this sheet was signed).
On the basis of short-term Schengen visa is entitled to stay in the countries participating in the Schengen Agreement of not more than 90 days within six months.
If you want to go to the French Overseas Departments (Guadeloupe, New Caledonia, Guiana, French Polynesia, Martinique, Wallis and Futuna, Reunion, Australian and Antarctic Lands France, Saint-Martan / Saint Barthelemy, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, Mayotte), it is necessary submit the following documents:
• The coordinates of the place of residence during the trip (name, address, phone, fax);
• Hotel reservation, a private invitation, the invitation of the company or an official body;
• The plane ticket back / back.
You will receive an answer within 10 days from the date of filing.
The cost of short-term visa (for a stay of up to 90 days) is 35.
Most French people are sincerely convinced that any respectable foreigner must speak French at least at the level of basic words. Therefore, an appeal to a local in English, for example, can cause misunderstanding demonstrative reaction with all its consequences.
Products in stores in the city center at 15-40% more expensive than in supermarkets in the suburbs.
France is characterized by a relatively low crime rate, but the number of thefts of personal property is large enough. It should be especially wary of "pickpockets" in airports, railway stations, public transport, trains from Charles de Gaulle Airport in the business part of the city, museums and other popular places. Leave valuables, documents and large sums of money in the hotel safe, do not remove the purse in crowded places. Also, do not leave things in the front seat of the car during stops. During the walks do not bring bags over her shoulder - especially active thieves on motorcycles.
Official holidays and weekends in France
January 1 - New Year's Eve.
April - Easter.
May 1 - Labor Day.
May 8 - Liberation Day.
May 12 - May 20 - Ascension of Christ.
May 23 - Whit Monday.
May 30-31 - The Trinity.
July 14 - Bastille Day.
August 15 -Uspenie Virgin.
November 1 - All Saints' Day.
November 11 - Remembrance Day, Armistice Day in the First World War.
from December 25 to January 1 - Christmas.
During holidays, museums are closed, but some shops are open.
Festivals and Events
Paris - International Exhibition of Contemporary Painting (autumn). Every year on July 13 on the eve of Bastille Day, Bastille held a grand concert. The annual festival of Celtic music is held in Lorient in early August. Every year in Dijon hosts an international festival of folk art (August - September).
Cannes - International Trade Fair for records and music publishing business at the Palais des Festivals (18 - 22 January) Fair television programs (the first week of April), International Film Festival (usually from 13 to 24 May), and in May, the "Porn Academy" - Hot D 'Om. In Juan-les-Pins - the second jazz festival Côte d'Azur (the second half of July). In Cannes (July 14) and Monaco (July 21-25 and August 4-11) - two arts festivals fireworks. Nice - Spring Festival (Carnival) from 1 to 27 May, the Festival of Baroque Music in the early summer, "Nice Jazz Festival" - from 11 to 19 July, and "Music Festival Mansa" in November. International Circus Festival held in Monaco in late January - early February. In Mentone Chamber Music Festival is held in the church of San Michele (1-31 August) and the Lemon Festival (8-28 February).
Avignon Festival takes the famous art of Dramatic Art (annually in July). Each summer in Burgundy passes Music Festival "Grands Cruz" and the festival of the best French wines. Grass holds Flower Festival (exhibition roses) in May and Jasmine Festival in August.
Corsica - August 12 Piodzhiolle a competition for the best ringer. Bright Fair with poetic contests held in Niola in early September. August 25 in the village gather Serman violinists from all over the island and spend the holiday frame. In Bastelica August 12 held a costume parade in honor of the national hero Sampiero the prototype of Othello. August 8 and 9 during the holiday "Festa Antica" opens in Aleria Crafts Fair, held parades, and the restaurant serves Roman menu. In Ajaccio on August 15 celebrated Napoleon. Colorful fairs of olive oil held in the St. Lucie-de-Tallano in March and Montegrosso in July.
Traditional cuisine France
French cuisine is considered one of the best in the world. The most famous of its products are biscuits, croissants, chocolate bread, baguette, baguettes and snails bourguignon egg "cocotte" with tarragon, pea flour pancakes "socca" sausages in Lyons, lobster with parsley pie onion "pisalade" and, of course, onion soup. Plus the mandatory use of a variety of sauces (over 3000 recipes) and a variety of spices. Moreover, each region of the country has its own traditional food, often quite similar to the "neighbors."
Cuisine of Provence, Languedoc and Gascony different sharpness and wide use for cooking wine and spices. On the shores of the Loire, you can try unusual dishes from dandelion leaves and freshwater fish. Alsatian cuisine is very similar to German.
Kitchen Burgundy is famous for its cheeses ("Chaource", "Wesel", "Macon", "epuas", "Charolais" and "sumantran"), sausages "Chablis", chicken in red wine, mustard from Dijon, Bourgogne snails, goat cheese curds from Macon, poultry from Bresse, ham with parsley, Burgundy truffles, as well as the famous beef "Charolais". Very popular cider area and from black currant liqueur.
Brittany is renowned for its "sea food", are used in virtually all food edible marine life and fish, oysters, crabs, lobsters, crayfish and shrimp are used to prepare each of the second course. Also popular "crepes" - a kind of pancakes with various fillings.
Normandy is famous for its dairy products in the first place - cheese ("camembert", "Pont-Leveque," "livaro", "Neufchatel", etc..), Sour cream and mushrooms being added to almost every dish and sausage in Wirski and "true Normand" - apple popsicles in Calvados.
Cuisine of Provence - is primarily "buyabes" of different kinds of fish with sauce "Rui", fresh mussels in onion broth with spices, bread in the shape of a boat - "Navette" dishes from crab and fish sauce or roasted with anise liqueur on the grid , ear with garlic sauce - "burrida" vegetable stew "ratatouille" and lamb ragout, tomato Provencal, goat cheese, truffles, etc., all of this richly flavored olive oil. And, of course, the famous "nougat" of Montelimar.
Corsica is famous for cheeses made from sheep's milk "Brocchi" ham "coppa", fig jam, are also popular omelette with mint and cheese, poultry, corn porridge, seafood, delicious sweets, several kinds of honey and strawberry preserves. Here prepare wonderful dishes of meat - chestnut soup with onion and garlic in meat broth, pork fillet "Lonzo" ham "pritsuttu" bacon and eggs or baked potatoes "pantsetta" and smoked liver sausage "figatellu." Most popular on the island, "fruit" - sweet chestnut, used to make a huge amount of food, as well as the Corsican variety of tangerines - "Clementine."
Mention should be made of French wines. France produces thousands of varieties of excellent wine "all colors", the vineyards are considered a national treasure of the country that gave the world cognac (in its modern sense), and the famous Champagne Armagnac. Gorgeous red wines of Bordeaux and Burgundy in the Middle Ages were considered "liquid currency in Europe." Brittany and Normandy are famous for their cider (sparkling apple-based drink with an alcohol content of about 3-5%) and Calvados (distillate cider two or three years aging in brandy technology, "fortress" of more than 40%), which began to produce more in here XIII century. Corsican wine more tart and aromatic than the "continental" variety, and are made from several grape varieties. Known varieties such as "Skyacharelli" and "Nieluchchi" dry white wine from Vermentino, aperitif "Cap Corse" Corsican vodka "Aquavita" liquor "ratafii" numerous liquors of myrtle, lemon, strawberry, orange, plum and walnut wines.
Political system France
Republic with a presidential form of government. The head of state - the president. Head of Government - Prime Minister. Supreme legislative power is vested in a bicameral parliament (the Senate and the National Assembly).
About 59 million. Persons. Ethnic groups: French (94%), Portuguese, Algerians, Italians, Moroccans, Turks, Basques and others.
Number of incoming and outgoing payment means is not limited. Cash and securities worth more than 7.5 thousand. Euro (or other currency equivalent) should be declared. Foreign currency translated into euros, can be re-transferred to the foreign currency only to the equivalent of 800 euros. In addition to personal belongings duty free can carry up to 1 liter. spirits, beverage strength less than 22 ° - up to 2 liters., 2 p. wine, 200 pcs. cigarettes, 500 gr. coffee (or 200 gr. extracts of coffee), and 50 g. spirits (toilet water - up to 250 gr.), tea - 100 gr. (or 40 g. tea extracts), as well as food (fish - up to 2 kg, Eggs - 250 gr., animal products - up to 1 kg.) and other goods (for persons older than 15 years) in the amount of 15 euros (for children - 10 euros). Marking the shelf life of food required!
Prohibits the importation and exportation of drugs, items of historical value, weapons and ammunition, as well as animals and plants included in the list of endangered species. In case of import of drugs for personal use does not require any permission, but need to bring a prescription issued by a doctor or a lawyer. Plants, animals and vegetable products must be presented to officials of the quarantine service. Animals must have a certificate of vaccination, as well as a medical certificate in French, issued not earlier than five days prior to departure.
Medical aid France
Health insurance is required of international standard. Medical fee, first aid will be provided for free, follow-up and treatment are covered by the policy.
Working hours France
Banks in Paris are usually open on weekdays from 10.00 to 17.00 and from 9.30 to 16.00, closed on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays. On the eve of the holidays are only in the morning.
In the province of banks work from Tuesday to Saturday. Break, as a rule, from 13.00 to 15.00, on the eve of the holidays also close earlier than usual. Currency exchange offices are open daily from 9.00 to 18.00, off - Sunday.
In larger cities, most shops are open from 10.00 to 19.00, off - Sunday. In the province, and many shops are closed on Monday. Lunch - from 12.00 to 14.00 or from 13.00 to 15.00, some of the shops once a week to work 21.00. Supermarkets are often open until 21.00 - 22.00. Grocery stores and bakeries are usually open on Sunday mornings and public holidays.
The condition of roads in France evaluated as excellent. On major highways service stations located every 25 miles on other roads - often enough. Although tracks are numbered, the French usually guided by the city, which leads to that road. On their way, it is useful to look at the map, the nearest town which lies on the path. In rural areas, roads are often marked only the names of the surrounding villages.
French drivers are known quite aggressive style of driving and excessive speed, often maneuvers taken suddenly, at the last minute. Speed limit - 110-130 km / h, depending on the type of road, 50 km / h in urban areas and 90 km / h outside. Use of seat belts - is necessary. Children under 12 years should not be brought to the front seat.
In Paris, not easy to find a parking spot. Most parking - paid.
Bus in France - transport purely secondary. Long-distance routes there is little, only commuter. The basic function of bus - Transportation of passengers to the train stations. Overall the French consolidated schedules not only exist regional schedules, often combined with the railway.
France has a strong network of domestic flights, the lion's share of which carries out the national carrier Air France and regional airlines in the group Air France. Regular ticket prices start at 100 euros for round-trip flights. Periodically, there are special offers from 25 euros per flight.
Europe's leading low-cost airline EasyJet is significant competition on the routes from Paris to the south of the country. Own budget airlines in France there is little, except for the company FlyWest, whose traffic volumes are extremely small: flight a day from Paris to Toulon and Brest, and occasionally a couple of other routes.
Water transport in France is important mainly as a means of communicating the mainland to Corsica. Numerous ferries between the ports of the Côte d'Azur and the island. Time - a few hours, the prices are quite reasonable.
Public transport most of the cities of France consists of buses, trams and sometimes suburban trains. The Paris urban transport (RATP) consists of buses, subways, commuter trains (called RER), and in a couple of suburbs trams.
The basis of the urban transport system are 14 subway lines (the most dense metro system in Europe, and possibly in the world. Norm is the presence of at least one metro station is 500 meters from any house within a huge central Paris), as well as 5 lines RER. Complement this network of buses.
The tariff system is based on the principle of ring-tariff zones, which to distant suburbs, there are eight. Zones 1-2 - it is a single zone, central Paris. In zone 3 get nearer suburbs - Vincennes, Saint-Denis, La Defense, and others. In zones 4-5 are both Paris airports, as well as Versailles and Disneyland. In view of the plurality of zones and tickets, in Paris, there is a great variety of payment, and we give only a few examples.
Single tickets in the center is 1.4 euros, a block of 10 tickets - 10.5 euros. Night bus costs 2.7 euros. Travel day Mobilis Pass worth 1-2 zones 5,3 euros for zones 1-3 - 7 euros for zones 1-5 - 12.1 euros.
Week pass Carte Orange is worth 15.4 euros for 1-2 zones, 20.3 euros for 1-3 zones, 30.2 euros for 1-5 zones. However, it does not operate arbitrary seven days a calendar week, Monday through Sunday. The last day when you can buy it for this week - Wednesday.
If you come to Paris on Thursday or Friday for a few days, you can buy a tourist ticket Paris Visite. It is relatively expensive, and although giving discounts at selected restaurants and non-principal museums, confused him a little bit there. You can buy it by-1, 2, 3 or 5 days at 3, 5 or 8 zones. Worth it for 1 day 8.35 euro into three zones, 16.75 euros for the five zones. At three days - in three zones 18,25 and 37,35 into five zones. Five days - three zones 26,65 and 45,7 five zones.
Really gives discounts at museums and other attractions quite another ticket - Musses Monuments. It costs 18 euros for one day, 36 euros for three days and 54 euros for five days. But to travel in public transport does not work.
Metro in Paris
In Paris, 16 subway lines, designated names endpoints, so we need to know the name of the endpoint desired line. Metro operates from 5:30 am until after midnight. Stretches between metro stations are usually very small. One ticket, you can make as many direct ("correspondance"). Metro tickets are suitable for both buses and trains RER within Paris. 1 ticket for the trip costs 1.5 euros for 10 trips - 7-8 euros depending on the zone. There are also tickets for a week ("coupon jaune", valid from Monday to Sunday) and month ("carte orange"), standing in accordance with the transport zones from 10 to 25 euros. Tickets "Mobilis" or "Paris Visite" are entitled to one, 3 or 5 days of unlimited travel by metro, bus and train RER (valid from any day of the week) and are entitled to discounts at some museums (from 6 to 50 euros depending on the band). Ticket "Musees-Monuments" ("Monument Museum") gives the right of free and pre-emptive visit the permanent collections of 70 museums and monuments in Paris and the Ile-de-France (sold in Paris Tourist Office).
Apart from the usual seat in the subway cars have folding and that during peak hours or when a crowded train relies release. Gives way to older people is not accepted. Also been made to ask the standing in front of the exit at the next stop - you just need to sneak to the door, apologizing to everyone.
Taxis in France
In French there is no special taxi signal light - outside, near the windscreen of the counter with a flag (raised - taxi freely omitted - busy). The fare charged by the meter. In Paris, the base rate for any trip 2 euro plus during the day - from 50 cents per kilometer, at night - around 1 euro per luggage - 1-2 euros. Outside the city prices are about 40% higher, should agree on payment in advance, as in this case, paid and return travel to the city. Waiting time taxi paid at the rate of 20 euros per hour. Tip the driver - about 10%. Catch the car on the street is not easy.
220 V, 50 Hz. European type sockets. Need an adapter.
Prices of hotels and restaurants include taxes and service charges - they do not stand out as a separate item in the bill. In cafes, bars and some restaurants are cheaper to eat and drink at the bar than at the table. Usually indicated two prices: "au comptoir" (at the front) and "a salle" (at the table). Lunch on the street tables outside the restaurant or cafe costs about 20% more expensive than in the room. A tip of 10 to 15%, as a rule, in the restaurants included in the bill, but the change in the form of small coins decided to leave on the table. In cafes and bars is customary to leave a tip fixed (for example, 50 cents for a cup of coffee).
The local bartenders and waiters there is a system to refer to the calculation of the client. In some bars on the table, put a plate (the customer paid, waiting for delivery) or an inverted plate (customer paid, and does not wait for the date), in the other corner is folded in a special way the account or put a mark on it ... To understand this system is not very easy, so it is recommended seek the advice of the guide or the locals.
Helpful information France
Fire Rescue -18, Police ("Police-Secours") - 17 Ambulance - 15.