Greenland (local name - Kalaallit Nunaat) - the largest island of the Earth, located north-east of the mainland of North America. Business card Greenland - aurora (the so-called "Aurora Borealis"), which you can watch almost all year round. Polar mirages ("Fata Morgana"), which in these high latitudes show sometimes so fantastic pictures of magnificent sailing ships or towns surrounded by lush greenery that inexperienced tourists literally, "climb eye on his forehead."
Greenland (local name - Kalaallit Nunaat) - the largest island of the Earth, located north-east of the mainland of North America. The Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. More than three-quarters of the country is covered by glaciers. Enormous weight of the ice causes the crust to sink the middle part of the country, forming a concave pool, which reaches a depth of 360 m. Below sea level. Settlements are only suitable for coastal areas, in many places, rugged fjords. The highest mountains are in the east coast. Mountain Trout north of Anmassalika in southeastern Greenland reaches a height of 3360 m., The highest point - Mount Gunnbёrn (3700 m.) Lies in the northern part of the country. Length of the island from north to south - 2690 km, maximum width - 1,300 km. Total area - 2,176 sq. M. km.
Administrative center - Nuuk (Godthab, translated from the Danish "Cape"). The city is the oldest in Greenland, which was built by the Danish missionary Hans Edzhed in 1728, after he left his first settlement on the Island of Hope in the Davis Strait. The city is also the largest in Greenland with about 13 500 inhabitants.
For tourist visits in Greenland 2 main seasons: summer - from June to September and horse husky - February and May. Horseback husky can only north of the Arctic Circle (north of Sisimiut) and in East Greenland. Summer skiing Husky is only possible on a glacier in the area of Disko Bay.
Greenland and northern areas, called already set centuries in the Latin style - "Ultima Thule", remain the land of fantastic opportunities for both extreme forms of recreation and sports, and a great place ecotourism. Vast tundra, ice packs and shiny monstrous glaciers that "give birth" icebergs right in front of a few while tourists year-round opportunities for ice-klambinga, snowboarding and skiing, unique (albeit meager) nature, rich in living creatures sea, silent with the Inuit their unique culture and fantastic adaptability to the most severe local conditions - all this constantly attracts more and more tourists.
The best time to visit the country - during the polar "white nights" between May and July. For the winter holidays the most suitable April.
Greenland - the largest island in the world (2.175.600 km 2, more than only Australia, but it is - a continent), but getting here is only possible through one of the three international airports.
Ausiait known for its leather crafts and traditional embroidery. Kasigianguit (or Kristianskhob) has an excellent museum with one of the most extensive collections of relics period "Sakkak" Kugatsiak ("Pretty small foothills") is a tiny multicolored fishing village, a place of catching seals and Kekertassuak (Godhavn) on Disko Island has an abundance of all attributes for whaling (this is one of the few places in the world where it is allowed) and Arctic research station. Melville Bay Beach in West Greenland is an almost continuous high ice cliff, probably the largest continuous ice massif in the northern hemisphere.
Godthab (Nuuk) - if you are not an anthropologist, this city can not provide a lot of entertainment to attract attention. There are a few relics Hans Szeged (one of the first missionaries and public figures), but very little of the original architecture of Greenland. Most of the historical collections of the capital is concentrated in the National Museum of Greenland. Dog sledding, kayaking, umiak, traditional instruments and a variety of Eskimo and Inuit art crafts presented in its halls, but the biggest attraction of the museum - Eskimo mummies (date back more than 500 years of age) found Grumvold brothers in 1972 in a shallow grave in Kilakitsoka .
Kolonihaven - a pleasant exception of Nuuk, a kind of Lego City. It is a picturesque fishing village of XVII-th century in the heart of Nuuk. The real attraction of Nuuk is its proximity to the venue of many excellent excursions into the hinterland and the incredible landscapes that open from the top of the nearby mountains.
Qaqortoq (Yulianskhob), which lies on the tip of the peninsula in the south of Greenland, is a clean and pleasant port city, built on the site where the lost colonists searched Hans Szeged. With a population of just 3.5 thousand. Residents, the city is the center of the southern region of the country and it is worth visiting in the summer, when the neighborhood literally "explode" with wild flowers. Pride of the city - city square fountain - the only one in Greenland, decorated brass plaque with the names of the city burghers based (although many of the tablets "were victims of" souvenir hunters). Museum Qaqortoq Must visit - this is one of the best museums in Greenland, showing the crafts of past and present inhabitants of the island. Sculpture "Stone and Man" - Another attraction of the city, with its creation of the natural rock formations used as a material for countless abstract shapes and figures.
Mainly Qaqortoq used as a starting point for hiking and dog sledding to the picturesque area "Peters Kane" around the lake Tasersuak or to a nearby town Igalik.
Hvalsey ruins lying on the riverside near the Qaqortoq, are the most extensive and best preserved traces of Norse settlements in Greenland. Hvalsey even mentioned in ancient Icelandic annals "Flateyyarbik" as a place of burning witches at the beginning of the XV-th century, as well as the only place where marriages were made between the Inuit and the colonists.
Upernavik, located in the fjords of Baffin Bay, 800 km away. north of the Arctic Circle - the most northerly ferry in the world. As the locals say: "You can not even begin to know what a cold, yet have not visited in Upernavik." The city's name translates in a fairly amusing manner as "Spring Place". Given that the average summer temperature here is no more than +5 C, it's pretty weird. Scientists say that when the first settlers have chosen this place, the climate was much milder, and therefore the name of his city then justified, with the onset of a general cooling of climate, he became one of the coldest inhabited places on the planet. Most residents are employed in the fishing industry, and hunting of polar bears, which is prohibited almost everywhere in the world and as an exception allowed the locals - one of the few ways to feed a family for the majority of Upernavik. Be sure to visit the Old Town Museum, which is also actually the oldest in Greenland. Book of visitors to the museum is full of autographs of many famous Arctic explorers. The exhibition includes all types of kayaks (including sea !!), a complete collection of a wide variety of harpoons and other accessories for hunting whales, knives and leather goods. Ongoing training is full of historical exposition area. The three-hour hike from the highest peak Upernavik - Inuusuussak, to the northern tip of the island - Naayarsuit, will go through quite a magical landscape. Stones interspersed with colored minerals all colors and shades, natural graphite core, unique acoustics in the valleys, allowing whisper spread for miles - all this can be seen and felt only here.
Ilulissat (translated as "icebergs") lives up to its name, as if gazing into a mirror sea, crowded with icebergs and ice floes drifting just below the unforgiving gray skies. Ilulissat - one of the most popular tourist destinations in Greenland fully "knit" with its long and colorful history. Archaeological excavations have dated the first human settlement in these areas in the period of 3500 years ago, which puts the Ilulissat in the list of the main areas of settlement of the ancient tribes. Locals in his life so far guided the ancient proverb: "Give me winter, give me dogs, and you'll get all the rest", and mainly engaged in fishing and marine animals fight. The main attractions of Ilulissat - Ice Museum and the Museum of Knut Rasmussen, with an exhibition devoted to his Arctic expeditions, as well as exposure crafts Danish settlers and Inuit. Another of the temptations of the city - Ilulissat Aysford ("Ice Fjord"), formed by a glacier Sermeq Kudzhallek 5 km. wide and about 150 m. thick (this is the most powerful glacier outside Antarctica). In Aysforde so much ice, that the only thing here is clearly on the lack, so it's liquid water. Hiking trails pass through the ice caves with sverkayushimi walls, and the easiest and most pleasant hike will lead to the ruins at Sermermiut and Holmes Bakke, where the entire population is going to Ilulissat January 13 to welcome the first sunrise after the long polar night.
Avanersuak (Tula region) is in the "realm of Ultima Thule" of 1500 km. in the north of Nuuk, and is the most inaccessible areas of the polar region of the world. His discovery has demanded from European travelers enormous effort and cost. Even today Avanersuak is remote, impassable and not cheap. In addition to all his difficulties here is the United States Air Force Base, and tourists are not allowed to visit between September 15 and 15 April, and any foreigner visiting the Thule Air Base, requires permission from "Air attachey" The United States, the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Danish Embassy. It is interesting to eight-day trips between Kannaakom and Sorapalukom, including a tour of exotic hunt walrus and accommodation in the "needle". The most attractive 15-day hunt on the sea ice with a visit to several villages locals and getting to know their way of life.
Uummannaq was formerly the center of the whaling industry and the Dutch settlement in the XVII-th century. Many of the ancient traditions are still alive among its inhabitants. Every spring, when it detects the first ship of the season, the whole village is going on a hill in the west of the city and three salvo salute, greeting arriving ship. Uummannaq - chaotic city, stubbornly clinging to the hills of the walls of their buildings. Lack of land saved the city from Nuuk architecture block houses, and most of the families live in separate ancestral homes, though not very beautiful, but reliable. Uummannaq Museum located on the territory of the old hospital. A whole room is devoted to the ill-fated expedition of the German scientist Alfred Weiner. There is also a small exhibition dedicated to the archeology and history of these places, the mummy of Kilakitsoka, tools and weapons for hunting whales. "The House of Weeping" - it's an old building, which served as a warehouse for whale oil. Castle of Santa Claus in two hours by foot from the city center has long been competing with other countries for the right to be the residence of a popular character. The cave is located a little further along the coast, known in local folklore as the "Grotto of the trolls" and even more intriguing than the "Santa's house".
Uummannaq mountain - the natural formation of the stunning beauty and the most unusual flowers that have ever met in the world. Horus is an ancient gneiss base of the continental shield, billowing up in the alternation of black, white and red of the rock layers, changing shades of color at any given time depending on the lighting. Although the mountain looks completely unavailable, several expeditions still climbed to the top, but for most visitors simply explore this unique natural formation, the only analogue is only a mountain of Uluru in Australia.
Lake Motzenfeld attracts attention with its harsh conditions, but his efforts to visit will cost spent on this power. Long, shaped angle lake, surrounded by towering at 1,600 meters. Peaks of ice and fed by two majestic glaciers. On the way to the lake, you can visit the beautiful valley Koororssuak dramatically in between the giant peaks and Illerfissalik Suusukutaussa and Koorkup Kuua river, which flows out of Lake Motzenfeld.
Kulusuk - a small island, a simple point near the east coast of Greenland, but many believe that it is - the perfect place for a first acquaintance with the island. Its international airport Kulusuk makes it easy for air flights from Reykjavik. First impressions of Kulusuk - tiny village clinging to the rocky island just above the lead-gray shiny sea with numerous icebergs and dramatic mountain peaks in the background. Many of the locals still live by hunting. Curiously enough, is the fact that Kulusuk remains relatively free of Western influence, in spite of the constant influx of tourists. Ironically, many of the guests of the island upon arrival immediately try to visit the beautiful island cemetery, which is decorated with plastic flowers and how-to "rebel" against all kind absolutely silent icy Arctic landscape. The islanders are constantly organizing tourist informal technology demonstration kayaking and dance performances, but all submissions immediately canceled when the performers at the moment suddenly prefer to go hunting. Walking along the shore through the tundra, carpeted Arctic glaciers colors and languages, or hiking to the eerie mountain lake before descending to the city, or "cruise" on small fishing vessels along the scenic coast - that's the best way to get acquainted with this place.
Mountain Trout north of Anmassalika in southeastern Greenland reaches a height of 3360 m., The highest point - Mount Gunnbёrn (3700 m.) Lies in the northern part of the country. Length of the island from north to south - 2690 km, maximum width - 1,300 km. Total area - 2,176 sq. M. km.
Business card Greenland - aurora (the so-called "Aurora Borealis"), which you can watch almost all year round. Polar mirages ("Fata Morgana"), which in these high latitudes show sometimes so fantastic pictures of magnificent sailing ships or towns surrounded by lush greenery that inexperienced tourists literally, "climb eye on his forehead."
Over 80% of the territory occupied by the ice sheet. Maritime climate is subarctic and arctic glacier - continental, coastal - extremely changeable. Average Temperature of July - from 3 C to 9 C. and January respectively from -8 C to -17 C. In summer, the temperature sometimes rises to 21 C, but often even in this period, the temperature does not exceed 0 C. The lowest temperatures observed on the east coast - to -46 C in winter. The average annual rainfall in the south - about 1080 mm in the capital - up to 600 mm in the extreme north - 100-200 mm. Summer on the coast are frequent thick fog. On the surface of glaciers often blow strong katabatic winds "piterak" whose speed sometimes reaches 60-70 meters per second.
Far from Moscow at 5:00 in winter and 6 hours - summer.
Official language - Inuit (Eskimo or, accepted in lieu of the Danish), divided into three strongly differing dialects - western, eastern and northwestern Greenland. The basis of the literary language put West Greenlandic dialect. Most of the population is fluent in Danish, in the business world English is widely used.
Danish Krone (Dkr), equal to 100 era restriction applies Krona Faroe Islands (Kr). In the course of banknotes in denominations of 1000, 500, 200, 100, and 50 kroner coins in denominations of 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 crown, 50 and 25 era.
Most residents receive the money directly to a credit card, so their use presents no difficulties. Two banks operate throughout the country: Nun Bank and Gryunlandbanken readily exchange travelers checks (commission about US $ 5) and work with the credit cards Visa and Mastercard. Major credit cards are accepted in tourist complexes, restaurants and hotels. Currency exchange is available only in private and extremely disadvantageous exchange rate. Even in the airport "Duty Free" strongly undervalued exchange rate.
Regardless of the purpose of the visit Russians issued only single entry visa. To enter the country must have a passport, 2 profiles with photos, invitation (tourist, private or official), when traveling with children - a notarized consent of the 2nd parent. Trip with children in the service invitation difficult. Consular fee of 900 rubles is charged along with the documents in the case of a negative decision, no return.
Although the achievements of civilization - an integral part of the lifestyle of the Eskimos today, only 40 years ago Greenlanders lived alone hunting, unaware of the existence of any other food, computers, luxury cars and motorboats. According to their beliefs, people were shadows - and more dead than alive - and living in the kingdom of their rituals are held only hunting. Any objection, any deviation from the established way of life would mean a return to the world of animals. Harmony with nature and respect for the dead, and the veneration of animals who sacrificed themselves for the good of man - the distinctive traits of a good hunter, who held the world on the deviation from the axis. Eskimo folklore tells of a time when people could talk to the animals; Words have tengeq, or inner strength, and if uttered carelessly lost their force. Perhaps in this lies the root cause of almost legendary Inuit reluctance to talk in vain. Their taciturnity makes many visitors look bold and brash.
Small figures Tupilak Inuit for centuries made of bones, skins and pieces of turf. Initially it was thought that they were approaching death, and the one who cut them, had to be very careful and ensure that the power of the amulet victim was weaker than the force tupilak, in order to avoid fatal errors. Today figures tupilak sold as souvenirs and are cut from antler, soapstone, wood and tusk of the narwhal, seals, teeth and bones, and the only power they possess - the ability as a magnet to attract tourist dollars.
It is said that the inscription on the Greenlandic language looks like a clumsy attempt at a two-year child to print anything; long chains of polysyllabic words are connected by repeating the vowels, and the number of letters "q" is slightly off scale. Spoken language is not easier, since Greenlanders have a habit of half cut polysyllabic words on your own, and therefore for foreigners who are guided by phrasebook meaning of what remains a mystery.
Relationship Greenland and "Greenpeace" change with every gust of wind. "Greenpeace" categorically against the capture and slaughter of seals and whales, and this position has seriously undermined the economy of Greenland, and in particular the northern part of the island, where 80% of the total income of the hunt. Since then, the "Greenpeace" acknowledged that the situation in Greenland is different from the situation in other countries, except in cases of destruction of animals at risk of extinction, hunting is now allowed. Nevertheless, many Greenlanders still speak bitterly about the invasion of conservationists in their traditional way of life.
Religion - Christianity (38.2% - Lutherans), retaining the traditional indigenous beliefs.
The biggest event in Greenland calendar - celebrating the end of the polar night. It usually takes place in January - February. In March Nuuk provides hospitality international festival of snow sculptures, while the Uummannaq Fjord holds unique competitions - World Ice Golf Chempionships (World Championship of Golf on ice). In early April, in Sisimiut comes the "hard" a three-day ski race in the world. On the eve of Easter, the village north of the Arctic Circle conducted sled dog race and Arts Festival. Music Festival Qaqortoq held in late June - early July, and immediately after it begins Nuuk Marathon. Another big festival - Aasivik, cultural and political forum, which is usually held in mid-July and is known for its performances of traditional folk theater, dance to the tambourine and drums and folk music.
Traditional cuisine Greenland
Traditional cuisine Greenland inevitably includes red meat and fresh killed animals: walruses, seals and whales. The most delicious part - the eyes, kidneys and heart - traditionally left to the chief hunter, and other organs are distributed according to the hierarchy. In the food used by all the animal as a whole, does not disdaining. Jean Malaurie in his book The Last Kings of Thule describes the local delicacies of litter partridge and seal oil, or, for example, narwhal fat and water mixed with the seals brain and chewed grass from the first stomach of a deer. Even if you are happy to try new and unusual, it is advisable to think twice before you taste the traditional Greenland food. Hardly any local dish would be one in the pages of cooking magazine Gourmet.
Nowadays supermarkets replaced the locals hunt. The store Greenlanders can buy even tropical fruits, though packed steak whale or walrus meat can still be found in the frozen food department.
Political system Greenland
In the past, Greenland - the colony, and in May 1979 - a self-governing territory within Denmark. Legislature - Parliament, which selects the executive body of the local government - county council. The jurisdiction of Denmark remained foreign policy, defense, justice and finance. The population of Greenland elects two representatives to the Danish Parliament - the Folketing.
About 56,969 thousand people, Greenlanders (Inuit) - about 87%, 13% - the Danes and immigrants from other European countries.
There are no restrictions on the import and export of local or foreign currency. All imported goods, with the exception of the standard set must be for an amount not more than 1350 cron.
Medical aid Greenland
Medical care, usually paid in cash, by international standards inexpensive. In case of accident, sudden illness or exacerbation of chronic disease all staying temporarily in Denmark foreigners are entitled to free medical care, provided that the receipt of such a service was not the purpose of his arrival in Denmark, and that the patient as a result of the disease does not have enough strength to go back and get these services in the home country. The return flight will cover the patient. Nevertheless, it is advisable to take out medical and travel insurance standard. When visiting Greenland requires a special "Arctic" insurance.
Working hours Greenland
Banks. Hours: Monday, Wednesday and Friday from 9.30 to 17.00 on Thursday from 9.30 to 18.00.
• Kangerlussuaq in West Greenland has daily connections to Copenhagen flights Air Greenland
• Narsarsuaq in South Greenland is the message a few times a week from Copenhagen and Reykjavik flights and Greenland Air Iceland Air.
• Kulusuk in East Greenland has daily connections with flights Reykjavik Iceland Air.
Regular passenger cruise between Europe (America) and Greenland not. However, there are comfortable cruises on luxury liners from both Europe and America.
Voltage is 220 V, 50 Hz. Rosette standard European-type grounding.
Payment for services is usually included in the bill, so you can not leave a tip.