India - a country with a rich colorful culture and rich history. The official name of the country comes from the ancient Persian "Sindhu" - the historical name of the Indus River. In India, there is nothing predictable and constant. This country of bright colors is striking grandeur of the Taj Mahal and the extraordinary variety of holy buildings Pestryaev immaculately kept Jain-temples.
India - a country in South Asia, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. India shares borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal and Bhutan - in the north-east, and Bangladesh and Myanmar - to the east. In addition, India has maritime borders with Maldives in the south-west of Sri Lanka - in the south and Indonesia - the south-east. The disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with Afghanistan.
The capital of India - Delhi.
By area, India is the seventh largest in the world. India is home to many ancient civilizations and the center of important historic trade routes. In India originated Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism.
Until the mid XX century, India was a colony of the British Empire. At independence in 1947, the country has made great strides in economic and military development, especially during the last two decades.
The Indian Constitution recognizes also the second name of the country - Bharat, which is derived from the Sanskrit name of the ancient Indian king, whose history has been described in the Mahabharata. The third name - Hindustan - used since the Mughal Empire, but has no official status.
The country was one of the oldest civilizations of the world's richest natural conditions and warm climate, India simply can not engage the attention of millions of tourists. The majestic Himalayas and the mysterious Tibet, the holy river Ganges and the tropical forests of the Western Ghats, dozens of beach resorts and the "golden triangle", numerous monuments of past centuries and the great number of museums, all of this is the national pride of the country.
Delhi - a unique city. According to legend, the modern New Delhi has the eighth city in this place, and the earliest appeared on this site long before X millennium BC. e. Among the historical monuments of the capital stand out the famous Red Fort (Lal Qila, 1639-1648), with located inside a vast palace complex of the Mughal era and "colored palace" Rang Mahal, the ruins of the ancient monument of Delhi - Bhairon temple, the tallest tower of the country (72.5 m.) - Ensemble Qutab Minar (Vijay stambha supposedly 1191-1370), the ruins Lalkota "Walled City" Purana Qila (Din Panah, 1530-1545), the palace of Raj Ghat, the oldest in India Jantar Mantar Observatory (1725), the ruins of Rai Pithora, complex Dzhahaz Mahal ("palace-ship", 1229-1230), the "tower-scaffold" Chor Minar, Indian Gate memorial arch, a former British Secretariat, which now houses the University of Delhi, Parliament House, Memorial of the uprising in 1857, the official residence of the President - Presidential Palace "Rashtrapati bhavan" (1931), a column of Asoka (250 BC. e., height of 12 m.) from a single piece of sandstone, one of the wonders of the world - stainless steel column (895 BC. e.) near the Quwwat-ul-Islam et al.
City is literally filled with temples of all world religions, often so tightly facing each other, that in the minaret of the mosque is seen Buddhist stupa, a dome of the Christian Church in contrast to the Hindu structures. The most interesting Sikh temple gurudvary Cic Ganj, Yogmayi temple (Krishna's sister), Laxmi Narayan Temple, Jain Temple Jain Digambar with a unique "bird hospital", the oldest Christian church in the country - the Baptist Church at Chandni Chowk, the Anglican Church of St. James (1836 y), the main Tibetan temple of the capital - the Buddhist Vihara, the Baha'i Lotus Temple (1986), the temple of the goddess Kali in Kalkadzhi (built in 1764 on the site of an ancient temple) and many others. Majestic mosques Delhi are among the best examples of Islamic art - the Jama Masjid (Friday or Cathedral, 1650-1658), the Kila Kitchenette Masjid (1545), Kher-ul-Minazel (1561), Moth-ki-Masjid (one grain of the mosque, XVI c.) Sonehri (Gold), Fatehpuri (1650), Kalan Masjid (Kali Masjid, 1386), Jamat Khana (Khizri, XIV cent.), Moti Masjid (Pearl, 1662 ), the country's first mosque - Kuwwat-ul-Islam (1192-1198), the Zeenat-ul-Masjid, and others.
Delhi is often called the "Mausoleum of the East" - so many are concentrated memorial structures legendary rulers and statesmen of many eras. To the category of religious buildings include the mausoleum of Adham Khan Dargah (shrine) Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, the tomb of Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmysha (1235), a Muslim saint Nizamuddin Dargah Chishti Awliya (1325), the architectural ensemble of the Tomb of Sultan Ghori (1230) tomb Firuzshaha Tughluq, Safdardzhunga tomb, the tomb of the only female ruler of the East - Razia sultana (1241), a masterpiece of Mughal architecture - Humayun's Tomb (Humayun-ka-Maqbara, 1565), mausoleums Jahanara Begum, and Muhammad Shah (1719-1748), the mausoleum of President Zakir Hussain (1973) about the Islamic University Jamia Millia, as well as the whole complex of tombs in Lodi Gardens.
The abundance of museums in the city can compete with any capital of the world. Worth visiting the National Museum, the National Gallery of Modern Art, the Archaeological Museum of the Red Fort, National Museum of Natural History, Memorial Museum J.. Nehru "Tinmurti-House" (1929-30 year) close to the diplomatic area Chanakyapuri, Indira Gandhi Memorial with the famous "Crystal river "(1988), Museum of national crafts, International Puppet Museum, the National Children's Museum and Aquarium at the Palace of Children Museum Tibet House at Lodhi Road, decent Air Force Museum in the Airport. Indira Gandhi, the Academy of Fine Arts "Lalit Kala Akademi," Museum of Applied fisheries in a large venue Pragati Maidan, the Academy of Music and Dance with the original Museum of Musical Instruments, a unique museum of Sulabh toilets and Delhi Zoo (1959) - one of the largest and most richest in the world.
Thousands of shops and traditional markets are located in the eastern area of streets Baba Kharak Singh, Chandni Chowk, Koniat Place, Hari Baoli, south of the University, near the gates of Lahore, near Urdu Bazaar, and so on. D. Here you can buy almost everything, and the famous atmosphere of oriental bazaar gives such purchases charm. And with all this, Delhi - quite a green city. There are many charming garden and park complexes and small green areas - Mughal Gardens in the Presidential Palace, and Roshanarskie Shalimarskie gardens with a pavilion Shish Mahal (Mirror) to the north-west of the "Old Delhi" Coronation parks, Buddha Dzhaynati they. Nehru, Pancha Shila park, gardens Quds (XVIII c.) Mahatab Bagh gardens in the Red Fort and others.
Agra - the capital of the Mughal empire and the jewel of India, is situated in 204 km from the capital. It focused a lot of these "wonders of the world" - the famous white marble mausoleum of the Taj Mahal (1630-1648), the great fortress of Agra (Red Fort) with a whole complex of majestic palaces, squares, mosques and parks inside the double walls of the citadel, the Moti Masjid (XVII .) and Nagina Masjid, two huge halls for audiences - Khaz Mahal and Palace of Mirrors, marble mausoleum Dzhahangri Mahal, exquisite tomb Itemad-ud-Daula and water park "Pavilion of fish." At Sikandra, a suburb of Agra, is surrounded by a garden mausoleum of Akbar's red sandstone. 40 km from Agra is a "ghost town" Fatehpur Sikri, the former capital of Akbar. Today the city is due to lack of water completely empty, but perfectly preserved inside the fortress, "The Great Gate" Buland Darwaza, "miraculous" mausoleum of Sheikh Salim Chishti, the Imperial Mosque, palaces, baths, royal mint, numerous squares and parks. In the holy Mathura, between New Delhi and Agra, if you believe the legend, Krishna was born. In Vrindavan (120 km south of New Delhi), "the city of five thousand temples", is another "gem" of the country - the temple of Krishna-Balaram Mandir (Engriddi Mandir, 1975), a place of pilgrimage for thousands of people. Quiet, friendly village of Khajuraho in northern Madhya Pradesh literally "awash" temples, including the world famous temples of the goddess of love Kami teeming erotic scenes.
Virtually the entire north-east of the country - the states of Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, it takes a vast mountain range of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush, for many thousands of years serving the focus of Buddhist monasteries and communities. Places like Ladakh (Ladakh), the town of ashrams of Rishikesh and one of their seven sacred cities - Haridwar, Spiti Valley, the holy Mount Kailash (Kinner Kailash, 6050 m) - the center of the universe, "Valley of the Gods" Kulu (Kulanthapitha), the residence of the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, a beautiful valley Parbati with the famous hot springs, beautiful mountain resort of Dharamsala, the sacred Amarnath cave, in which Shiva gave Parvati the secret of creation, and much more attracted to this area millions of pilgrims.
The most interesting Tibetan monasteries Tabo, Dhankar, Lalyung, Revalsar, Comedian and Ki, Hanuman temple in Shimla, Bhimakali, Basheshvar-Mahadeo, Bidzhli-Mahadeo and Raghunatha, as well as the most famous and high temples of Shiva and Vishnu and Kedarnath Badrinath.
Amritsar (pieces. Punjab) is the main shrine of Sikhism - The Golden Temple (Darbar Sahib or Swarna Mandir, 1577), surrounded by a sacred body of water of immortality. A layout and most administrative buildings Chandigarh built by the famous architect Korbyuze. Not far from the Naggar, where the family lived for a long time Roerich, is the famous mountain resort of Manali, which preached the legendary ancestor of mankind Manu, and which is known not only for its center of Tibetan medicine, but also the majestic temples and Manu Dhungri. Fantastic facilities set among pine forests of mountain resorts in Kullu, Simla, Nainital and Mussoorie. For lovers of mountain tourism offers many interesting trekkernyh routes, hiking on yaks, Tibetan jeep safaris, as well as visits to many national parks.
West Indies - the territory of contrasts. Mountainous areas of the Ghats interspersed here with lowlands and forests of Gujarat, replaced the deserts of Rajasthan and the beautiful beaches of Goa - diverse architecture of the old quarters of Bombay and Jaipur.
Mumbai (Mumbai, Mumbai) - "India Gate", "Hollywood Indian" and the state capital of Maharashtra. Modern Mumbai is famous for its diverse architecture - colonial mansions of the old quarters here side by side with high-rise buildings south of the city.
The most interesting triumphal arch "Gateway of India" (1924), Fort (1720), the Church of St.. John and St. Thomas the Apostle, St.. Thomas (1672-1718), the Prince of Wales Museum (1911 ), a Hindu temple of Mahalakshmi, the mausoleum and mosque of Haji Ali, Bombay University building, the building of the old Mint (1828), the largest in Mumbai Crawford Market, Victoria Terminus building, the Supreme Court and others. Among the other attractions of Bombay can be noted in the best India Taraporewala Aquarium, Museum of Western India, Victoria Park Gardens, the zoo, the Bombay Planetarium. Nehru, the Gallery of Modern Art in building the eastern style, as well as several temples in VII.
On the hill of the picturesque Malabar Hanging Gardens (Ferozeshah Mehta) and Gorky Park. Kamala Nehru with children's rides, a former British government residence Raj Bhavan (now the residence of the Governor of the State), the temple of the god of sand Valkeshvara, Zoroastrian "tower of silence", Planetarium. Nehru, Montplaisir, religious sources Banganga Tank, which appeared on a legend from hitting the boom ("ban") frames into the hillside, and Jogeshwari caves and Pool.
The best place for walking and recreation area is considered to Matheran (50 km east of the city), the promenade Marine Drive and Chowpatty Beach and Manori Beach, Sassoon Docks area, where in the morning opens a live fish market, as well as an abundance of shops and restaurants of Colaba . Be sure to take a stroll through the narrow winding quarters Kalbadevi area north of Crawford Market, where one after another, followed by whole series of colorful markets Zaveri Bazaar, Mangaldas Market, Dub and Chorus Bazaar ("thieves market").
The city has many museums and galleries, concert halls and other cultural objects, but due to high levels of air pollution and the heat, visiting them often not safe for a foreigner. In the suburbs of interest Elephanta Island (10 km. From the port) with rock temples V-VIII centuries. Kanheri caves famous 109 with bas-reliefs II-IX centuries. the National Park Krishnagiri Upavan (Sanjay Gandhi, 42 km from Mumbai), which also lie picturesque lakes Tulsi and Vihar chef.
Rajasthan is widely known for its military history and many ancient castles and forts. Here, amid the Thar desert areas, formed many ancient civilizations and built such colorful cities like Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner.
The state capital of Rajasthan - Jaipur (250 km west of New Delhi) - one of the most interesting cities in the country. Founded in 1727, it got its second name - "Pink City" because of the use in the construction of many buildings of pink sandstone. The palace complex Chandra Mahal is located in the heart of the city amidst landscaped gardens. No less interesting are the palaces of the Raj Mahal, Jal Mahal (Lake Palace), Hawa Mahal (Palace of the Winds, 1799) and Rambagh (today rebuilt into a luxury hotel), which lies 11 km from the town of Amber fort (XI- XVI centuries.), located on the cliffs and Jaigarh forts Nahagarh (XVIII c.), Birla Temple, Shri Govind Dev (Govind Devji), Lakshmi Narain and Kanak-Vrindavan pavilion Mubarak Mahal minaret Iswara Minar Swarga Sal (minaret penetrating into Heaven), as well as a huge open-air observatory - Jantar Mantar. Practically in all the palace buildings are now placed exposure from collections of the Royal Museum, Central Museum, and Museum of Indology Museum "City Peles", each of which deserves special attention.
Jaipur is located near the place of worship such as a city with its Abu Dilwara temple complex Mandir - a sacred place of the Jains, where be sure to visit the temples of Adinath (1031) and Neminath (1230). At 15 km from Jaipur, in Geytore is white memorial to the Maharaja Jai Singh II, the founder of Jaipur. In the area of Galt (20 km from Jaipur) is a temple of the sun-god, Sisodia Rani Palace Ka Bagh, and many mineral springs. In Udaipur, on the banks of the picturesque lake, stands a complex of palaces - Maharani (XVI-XVIII centuries). Lovely mosaic Jagmandir (XVII century.) And Dzhagnivas (XVIII c.) On Lake Pichola, and the huge towers of the City Palace and the gate the old town, surrounded by a wall.
Goa lies to the north of Mumbai and is considered the best sea resort area of the country. Goa - the first state in India, occupied by European colonizers, however, along with the endless white sand beaches, there are many ancient monasteries and castles, villas and factories in the Portuguese colonial style. The most attractive in historical terms-Velha Goa (Goa Velha, Old Goa), who once called "Lisbon of the East" - here are the magnificent temples surrounded by Cathedral Square, the Basilica of Bom Jesus-(XVI c.) - Storage of the relics of St.. Francis Xavier, the Church of Santa Monica and St. Augustine, Portuguese Catholic Cathedral Se (1562), the Church of St.. Cajetan, the royal chapel of St. Anthony Cathedral Francis of Assisi, and is considered the largest Christian church in Asia, the Cathedral of St.. Catherine (1652).
In Panaji, the state capital, is dominated by the majestic Church of the Immaculate Conception (1541), interested in the old district Fonteynhas, Mahalakshmi temple, built-up old buildings, the Latin Quarter and the hill Altino, Chapel Cv. Sebastian, a statue of Abbe Faria (a prototype of the famous hero of Dumas), the Secretariat building in Panaji and the National Museum. On the way from Panaji to Ponda is the temple of Sri Mangesh (dedicated to Shiva) and Shanta Durga. In Mapusa - Hanuman sanctuary, chapel of St.. Antony and the Church of Our Lady of the Miracle. In Margao - Church of the Holy Spirit and Grace, Municipal Garden and extensive market Margao.
But the main "treasure" of the state are undoubtedly its wonderful beaches, framed modern hotel complexes, restaurants and casino. The best of this continuous strip of white sand beaches are St Inez and Miramar near Panaji complex in Majorda Beach resort towns Aguada, Anjuna, Vagator, Palolem, Colva, Arambol and Calangute (known as the "Mecca of hippies"), as well as Baga Beach, Candolim and Shiridao, punctuated by picturesque coves and cliffs. Moreover, the region is famous for numerous festivals, among which stands Carnival Mardi Gras.
South India - the most densely populated part of the country, the concentration area of hundreds of ancient Tamil temples, colonial forts and many kilometers of sandy beaches.
Chennai (Chennai, Madras) was founded in 1639 as an outpost of the British on the peninsula, so its architecture strongly influenced by the British colonial style. The main attractions are the Fort St.. George (1653) which now runs the state government, the Cathedral of St.. Apostle Thomas (1504), the first Anglican country church - St. Virgin Mary (XIX c.), Shiva temple, Madras music Academy of Music and Dance Kalakshetra, the building of one of the oldest in the country at the University of Madras (1857), the International Centre of Theosophy them. Blavatsky's a beautiful park, Madras State Museum (1846) and others.
Near the town, on the shores of the Bay of Bengal spread a huge temple complex, Mahabalipuram (Mamallapuram) with two dozen temples VII-VIII centuries., As well as the famous rock carvings "Descent of the Ganges on the earth" (Penance of Arjuna). To the south-west of Chennai is a famous pilgrimage center - Madurai, with the colossal temple of goddess Meenakshi (Meenakshi Mandir, 1560) and Shiva temple complex (XII-XVII centuries). "Thousand pillared hall" (the middle of the XVI century.). Across the state of Tamil Nadu are spread such a unique religious centers like Kanchipuram, Srirangam, Tirupati, Chitambaram, Thanjavur (Tandzhur), Trichy, Tiruvannamalai, Rameswaram and others. Pondicherry is the Sri Aurobindo Ashram and one of the oldest in the world of alternative settlements - Auroville (1968 g).
In the south-west of the peninsula stretches Kerala whose Malabar coast is considered one of the best beach areas of Asia. In the state capital - Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram) attracted the attention of Padmanabhaswamy temple, the channels, the palace of the Maharaja of Travancore principality, Trivandrum art gallery with the paintings of Roerich and located in the suburb Tumba Research Center of the Indian space program. In Kochi (Cochin) interested in the ancient synagogue in the British Commonwealth (1568), Dutch Palace Museum, the Cathedral of St.. Francis and nearby castle Mattancherry. Thousands of tourists visit the mountain resorts of Ootacamund (Ooty) and Kodaikanal, a beautiful sea resort center of Kovalam and Lakshadweep Islands and Amindivskie off the west coast of the state.
To East India include the states of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Sikkim. This is the most diverse in natural conditions, the country is "sandwiched" between the coast of the Bay of Bengal to the south and the spurs of the Himalayas in the north. The main town of the region - Kolkata (Calcutta) - the administrative center of West Bengal and the largest city in the country, one of the ten largest cities in the world. Kolkata is the largest in India, the National Library (1836), the Memorial Museum. Queen Victoria (1921) in a huge park Maidan formidable Fort William (founded in 1696), the richest Indian Museum, the oldest in the country, the University of Calcutta (1857), a beautiful Botanical Garden (founded in the XVIII century.), Built on the site of the legendary "black hole of Calcutta" Post Office, the Kali temple, Mother Teresa Mission and the headquarters of the Ramakrishna society, Birla Technological Museum (Kolkata is one of the recognized engineering centers in the country), the Government House, Raj Bhavan, the Cathedral of St.. Paul, Botanical Garden , "the busiest bridge in the world" - console Howrah bridge et al.
In the vicinity of a number of religious centers - Mahabodhi Temple Mandir, the sacred place of the Jains - Pavapuri, a sacred place of Hindus - Gaia, Bo tree in Bodh Gaya (pieces. Bihar), Sikh temples in Patna, and the famous resort of Darjeeling.
For more than two thousand. Years, "the eternal city" of Varanasi was the religious capital of India. Built on the banks of the sacred Ganges, this is the easternmost city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, for many centuries, is a place of ritual bathing in the waters of the sacred river, and is a place of ritual cremation of Hindus. There are many sacred places of Buddhism - the stone column and mortar Dharmarajika, stupa Dhamekh on the first place of worship of the Buddha, Jain temple Sreesanth, steps ("Gata") for ablution in the waters of the Ganges, temples Vishwanath, Annapurna and Manmandir, mosques, Hanapi (XVII century) and Alamgir, and one of the best museums in India Bhavan.
To the north, high in the mountains, is state of Sikkim - the best trekkerny region of the country and center of Buddhist monasteries. It is worth visiting the state capital - Gangtok, which is a unique Museum of Tibetology and the imperial chapel Tsuk-La-Khan, or visit the homeland of Agni Yoga, and the burial place of Helena Roerich - Kalimpong.
Orissa stretches along the west coast of the Bay of Bengal. The main attractions of the state are considered to be three of the great temple of the city - Bhubaneswar, Puri and Konarak. It is particularly distinguished one of the biggest in India Temple Lingaraj (Temple of the king-phallus) in the city of Bhubaneswar, the Temple of the Sun (Surya Mandir, XIII c.) In Konark and Jagannath Temple Mandir (Temple of the Lord of the Universe) at Puri (Jagannath and Langaradzh closed to the public Europeans). Decent mosrkie resorts are located in Puri and Gopalpur. Becoming increasingly popular and totally uninhabited Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Huge interest are national parks - Kaziranga, Dzhaldapara, Manas, Dachigam, Jawhar (includes parks Bandipur, Nagarhole, Mudumalay and Wayanad). Interesting original reserves of birds - Govind Sagar Keoloadeo Ghana, Kanha, Point Kalimere, Pulicat, Vedanthangal, Nal Sarovar. Unique tiger reserves are located in the Sundarbans and Similipal.
The most favorable time to visit India after the monsoon season. From October to March last cool season, it is not considered tourist season. And the best months to travel to India - November and December.
Time ahead of Moscow for 2.5 hours. On the last Sunday in October - 1.5 hours.
State languages - English and Hindi, total - 17 official languages in the states, 844 dialects. Among the other most common languages are Bengali, Telugu, Tamil, and others. If you want to shine in front of a Hindu, and get his special favor, learn a few words in Hindi.
Visas Consular Department of the Embassy of India in Moscow. To obtain a visa required original invitation, passport, 2 photos, 2 copies of the completed questionnaire in English, tickets with a fixed date of arrival and the return will be charged. Visa is issued within 1-2 days. Consular fee is $ 40. USA.
Public holidays in India on January 26, Good Friday, May 14 2-3, October 23, November 7, December 25, days of religious and local festivals. Visit to India from October to March to avoid very hot months and the period of monsoon rains. In different states of religious holidays is not the same, it varies from year to year. This information should be specified when planning a trip. If a holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, then the company may be closed the preceding Friday or following Monday.
At the entrance to every temple you will be asked to remove your shoes, so it is advisable to bring your socks and throw them away after the tour.
Not accepted hugging and kissing in public. Welcome, joining fingers on the forehead level. Do not try to shake hands with the first and the more kiss. You go around all the buildings, especially religious buildings on the left side. If you pour the tea, wait until you are invited to a tea party. If you go away, empty the cup and leave it.
India - a shopper's paradise. With the current low price in India can and should bargain - this will get the goods at the best price. In India, high-quality and inexpensive fabrics: silk (Varanasi), cotton (in Rajasthan, Chennai), wool, brocade, cashmere, chiffon. Carpets - the cheapest and most common items in India. Cheap to buy silver jewelry, precious stones: diamond, ruby, sapphire, pearls (Hyderabad), aquamarine and moonstone.
Number of colorful folk festivals and celebrations are many times greater than even the number of national holidays of the country. Every day in any settlement of the country must pass some folklore, dance and music performances, exhibitions, craft fairs and cooking.
The most colorful parade in New Delhi on the occasion of Republic Day, Water Festival and the Festival of elephants in Kerala (January), a cascade of festivities during the holiday peasant Laurie (January), the International Kite Festival in Ahmedabad (January), a colorful parade of carnival cars Madurai and Tamil Nadu (February), Week of Yoga in Rishikesh and Uttar Pradesh (February), the annual dance festival in Khajuraho (February), a nationwide festival of Shivratri Natyandzhali (February-March), spring festival Dulhendi (Pushpadolotsav) and spring festival Shigmo in Goa (March).
Every year on March 16 in the north of India, in the city of Jaipur, Elephant Festival is held. Nowhere in the world can no longer see so many of these giant animals gathered at one time in one place. All of them dressed in colorful fabrics and garlands. On the day of the holiday, tourists can see the procession of elephants parading to the music, watch the race on elephants or on real sporting events Elephant Polo.
Festival temple dance Hoysala Mahotsava held in Halebid and Karnataka (April), 10-day Shi'ite Muharram festival takes place in April and May, the International Flower Festival in Sikkim (May), a three-day folk festival in Rajasthan Summer (June), Festival of chariots "Ratha Yatra "Puri (Orissa, June-July), the annual folk festival Tarnetar Mela (Melville) in August, hundreds of colorful festivals and fireworks throughout the country during the Durga puja (September-October) and Holi (March), as well as the Gunners Fair camels in Rajasthan (October-November), the International Festival of pearls in Hyderabad (November), the International Festival of seafood in Goa (November), the festival gardening Rajarani in Orissa (December) and thousands of other equally interesting events. Ganesh Chaturthi Festival (Vinayaka, August-September) is dedicated to the popular elephant-headed god Ganesha.
In September-October held an amazing festival of the Gods in Kullu, part Dashahra Festival, the most exciting events that take place in Mysore and Ahmedabad.
Do not use selling outdoors ice - it may be prepared from raw water. Recommended to use only mineral water in plastic bottles, and wash hands thoroughly special "red" soap. Be sure to thoroughly wash (and desirable - and scalding) fruits and vegetables, also do not allow the seller to cut the fruit with your knife. It is advisable not to eat fresh salads, relatively fearlessly, you can eat only vegetables in the skin or heat treated.
Quite common - pickpocketing and theft of baggage, so a passport, airline tickets, insurance and cash are best kept in the hotel safe, taking with him only the necessary minimum. Carefully watch your luggage during loading and unloading.
In Sikh temples can only be entered with her head covered in a mosque a woman can only enter with a covered head and shoulders, as well as in long clothes. Should not be included in any temples leather goods. By tradition, should sacrifice a little money temple (dipped into the donation box).
You can take pictures only with the permission of the minister of the church. For shooting in reserves and national parks must be paid by agreement with the administration. Some ethnic groups and castes photograph is not recommended. All the buildings, especially religious buildings, should get on the left side. Should be respected in any ceremonial objects.
The soles of shoes should not be turned towards the interlocutor, it is considered a sign of disrespect. Should not be shown to any finger. In a conversation, try to never raise your voice and do not get mad, otherwise you simply will not communicate.
Traditional cuisine India
Culinary traditions of the peoples of multimillion India are so diverse that speak of a single national cuisine is not necessary. In the north - their meals, Southerners love another. However, there is something that unites people from different regions of the country in their culinary passions. This - spices.
India - home to a huge number of spices, which in ancient times were sold at a premium. For the sake of spices Christopher Columbus set out to find a new route to India, and discovered America. It spices give Indian cuisine peculiar only to it a special flavor. The Indians used the well-known coriander, cumin, cloves, cardamom, cinnamon and lots of exotic spices, eg, mango powder or asafoetida, known in Russia as the ferrule smelly.
But, perhaps the most famous Indian spices - curry. Now the word is known throughout the world, but what is sold under the name "curry" in stores - a mixture of different spices, and in Europe or America curry ingredients can be very different. The very same plant curry, which is the basis of the mixture grows only in India. Incidentally, many spices have medicinal properties. For example, red pepper prevents rheumatism, ginger can be a great treat colds and turmeric helps to get rid of the hepatitis.
Another feature of Indian cuisine, combining northerners and southerners - an abundance of legumes and vegetable dishes. Legume proteins have a high nutritional value, and plants, unlike meat do not contain cholesterol.
India - the birthplace of vegetarianism, which is partly due to climatic conditions, but to a large extent - religious precepts. In most parts of India's hot climate, the meat is perishable (by the way, it can be great to keep using all the same spices that makes many Indians), but in some areas of the country were collected three or four crops of vegetables per year. However, the meat is consumed mainly for religious reasons. Muslims, mostly inhabiting the northern states, do not eat pork, and supporters of Hinduism - beef. Interestingly, even members of the same family can be fed separately, following its creed: my wife does not eat meat at all, and her husband avoids only beef.
Indians are very fond of sweets. Some of them are quite peculiar. For example, Gajar-Halva - a paste of carrots, or rasmalai - patties of paneer in the condensed milk. Also common sweet fruit pilaf. However, some Hindus still eat meat - Mughlai.
In the north, where many Muslims eat mit curry - lamb, braised in curdled with the famous spice. Or Kim - minced lamb with spices. In the south, one of the most exquisite dishes - Tandoori Chicken - chicken, baked on the coals. In the west and the east, where the country is washed by the waters of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, cook a lot of fish dishes: fish sauce from Goa or cod in Bengali.
To experience all the uniqueness of Indian cuisine, you must not go to a restaurant, and a visit to an ordinary Indian family. First, you will be offered milk tea with sweet or savory pastry - namkin. Hostess lights agarbatty - sticks of incense, the smoke from which the aroma fills the whole house.
Each serves a thali - large metal dishes are put on Katori (small cup is also made of steel). And they - appetizing gave raytha (yogurt with vegetables, seasoned with spices) and other semi-liquid food. On slide thali put rice or sabzi (fried or steamed vegetables with rice), salads, condiments and cakes, which are often used instead of spoons. After dinner, serve tea and sweets. And at the end - cardamom or anise, breath freshening.
Additional charges India
When visiting the many tourist destinations for photo and video will be charged from 50 to 200 rupees.
Political system India
India - Federal Democratic Republic of (Union of 25 states, 6 union territories and a separate National Capital Territory Delhi). Included in the British Commonwealth.
India ranks second in the world in terms of population - it is home to more than a billion people. The ethnic composition of the population - representatives of the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian groups, and nations belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The export of skins of tigers, wild animals and birds feathers, leather and leather products made of rare reptiles, live plants, gold and silver bullion, antiques and antiquities, made more than a hundred years ago.
Medical aid India
Officially vaccinations are required, but it is recommended to make vaccination against meningitis, typhoid, hepatitis A, as well as a prophylaxis against malaria. High risk of contracting hepatitis A, cholera, dysentery, malaria and typhoid. It should also carry a first aid kit with the means of disinfection against gastric disorders and antibiotics.
Many of the larger cities in India have a high degree of gas contamination and pollution, so travelers with a predisposition to respiratory disease preventive measures are desirable.
In the Indian state of Kerala is growing extremely dangerous for human tree "Cerbera odollam", also called "osalanga maram". The danger comes from its poisonous fruit containing serberin (toxin), a deadly effect on the heart. In the immature green form, they resemble mangoes, so easy to be deceived, and it is fraught with fatal consequences.
The tree reaches a height of 15 meters, has dark green leaves and releases a milky white latex sap. Its large white flowers exude odor resembling that of jasmine. From its venom kills more people than any other poisonous plant. Fruits "osalangi maram" often poisoned children, mistaken them for mangoes.
Working hours India
Banks are open on weekdays from 10.00 to 14.00, and on Saturday - from 10.00 to 12.00.
India has an extensive rail network, providing the bulk of passenger and freight traffic. Railways in India, laid in the last century, have a different gauge. As a consequence, the need for a plurality of transplants.
The roads leading to the Himalayas, brings tourists in a very beautiful mountainous areas with temperate climates. Each road - this is a unique piece of engineering. Between city-agglomerations (Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras) run high-speed trains with cars equipped with air conditioning. Express trains less comfortable. Passenger trains made up of cars 1, 2 and 3 classes.
We recommend a trip to the second-class cars, but they can not lose sight to the baggage, unless, of course, do not want to part with it. Hitchhiking along the roads of India is strongly discouraged. Roads major cities of India is the world's largest number of road fatalities. In the car, you can sit down only if there is confidence in the skill of the driver.
Potable water India
Vaccination is not required, but is strongly not recommended to drink tap water (even rinse your mouth). You should use the dining room or bottled mineral water. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and carry sanitary napkins. Recommend thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables, mineral water. Possibly eliminate fresh salads, vegetables recommended heat treated.
Mains voltage of 230-240 V, 50 Hz, sockets differ from the standard European, and in different states - different. Before turning on the electrical appliances are advised to consult with staff about the network parameters.
Smoking is not permitted in hospitals, schools and universities, libraries, courts and public transport.
Leave a tip is not accepted. Gratuities can be left only in expensive institutions. In hotels and restaurants service charge (10%) are often included in the bill. In India, distributed baksheesh - pre-payment for services (for example, for baksheesh at the hotel will find you need a letter, give the necessary information, and so on).
It is recommended that clothing made of cotton cloth, hat, winter need a sweater. When visiting the attractions and leaving the streets for women it is advisable not to wear clothing that drew the legs and shoulders.