Italy, which is among the countries of the Group of Seven, is by far one of the most economically developed countries in the world, exemplifying the European level of culture and economy. Wonderful climate and nature, and the weather in Italy, magnificent historical sites and monuments, developed resort infrastructure, the highest level of service and service - all it involves staying in Italy tourists from all over the world.
Italy is located in southern Europe, in the central part of the Mediterranean. In the north of Italy is bordered by Switzerland and Austria, in the east - with Slovenia, in the north-west - with France and bordering the four seas - the Adriatic to the east, in the south - the Ionian to the west - the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian. Italy belong to the island - Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and several smaller islands. The country's territory stretches from north to south for more than 1100 km and consists of 23% of the valleys (river and coastal), 35% - from the mountains (Alps and Apennines) and by 42% - from the hills of varying heights. Capital - Rome.
On the territory of the peninsula also has two independent states: the Vatican and San Marino.
Holidays in Italy - a constant test of your sensuality. Only include the effect of all your senses and attention, you will be able to fully appreciate the wonders of all the famous Italian art and architecture. Here some words is not enough!
Holidays in Italy - it's a lesson on how to live properly. Open fruit and vegetable markets, bakeries and widespread fresh cheeses - that's the foundation of Italian life. In this country, dominated by tradition: the neighbors can still be found on the market, to discuss the previous day, laundry still post a snow-white linen drying on the street, as well as hundreds of years ago, and of course the obligatory passeggiata - walk before bedtime, preferably with a gelato (ice cream ) in hand. From the foot of the mountains and to the coasts, the focus is on life's simple pleasures and high quality.
Colosseum - The most famous wreck in the world, the brand name of ancient Rome, the Colosseum (Il Colosseo), probably would never have been built, not resolutely Vespasian iznichtozhat traces the reign of his predecessor Nero. Under this program, on-site pond with swans adorned Golden Palace, erected a grand amphitheater of 70 000 spectators - the largest circus empire. Games in honor of his discovery (in 80 AD) continued non-stop 100 days; during this time and rend each other and cut 2,000 gladiators and 5,000 wild animals. However, the memory of emperor-arsonist was not so easy to erase: officially the new arena was called the Flavian amphitheater, but it has remained in history as the Coliseum - the name, apparently, is not referring to her own size, and by the enormous (35 meters high) statue of Nero as the sun-god.
The current view of the amphitheater - almost triumph of minimalism: strict ellipse made three orders in three tiers, carefully calculated shape of the arch. But we must understand that conciseness - the result of several barbarian invasions, earthquakes and a couple centuries of legalized plunder: up to 1750, when Pope Benedict XIV ordered to finally end the ugliness, the Colosseum deputized Romans quarry; of his marbles and travertine blocks built a good part of the urban masterpieces. Originally, each arch was applied to the statue, and a giant gap between the walls with a special mechanism delayed canvas. This mechanism has been extremely difficult - to manage it hired a separate team of sailors. But no solar heat or rain do not become a hindrance for our amusement. Games started early in the morning parade of gladiators. The Emperor with his family looked at what is happening with the first row; arranged around senators, vestal, the consuls and priests. A little further away sat aristocrats and other important citizens. The next rows occupied the middle class; then marble benches were replaced by covered galleries with wooden seats. Uppermost was intended for the plebs and women, the next - for slaves and foreigners.
Pantheon - The surest way to get to the Pantheon, not straying too long the lanes - to turn off the Corso for the Palazzo Doria Pamphili (Palazzo Doria Pamphilj). Miss impossible in the XVII century Genoese Andrea Doria received for his wife Anna Pamphili one of the most prominent palaces of Rome, and the current heir - Prince Jonathan, the adopted son of an English nurse, who has died childless at the hands of the last descendant of a powerful kind - and still owns one of the most impressive art galleries in the city. You can get there after a few meters into the quarter, on a tiny street with a misleading name Lata ("wide"). On the corner of a marble figure looks askance with a barrel - a fountain "water-carrier" (Il Facchino), to whose breast in Papal Rome append topical pamphlets.
The place was noticeable: a stone's throw from the fountain in the square Collegio Romano (Piazza del Collegio Romano), was a formidable institution - the main Jesuit school founded in 1551, less than 20 years after Ignatius of Loyola founded the order. It is, in fact, was called the Roman College (Collegio Romano). There were tested methods by which Jesuit education before the beginning of XIX century was considered the best in the Christian world: the rejection of physical punishment, health care, encouraging ambition, focus on understanding rather than memorization of the material. Among the graduates of Jesuit colleges were, for example, Moliere, Diderot, Voltaire, Cervantes and Vyazma. But despite all the educational achievements, the Jesuits have earned a reputation so odious that even to the XVIII century, any enlightened reformers at the first opportunity they began to prohibit and expel. So the giant complex was built in 1582-1584, respectively, immediately after the unification of Italy was selected in favor of the state. Now there is the Italian Ministry of Culture - an institution, alas, much less meaningful. And once the Jesuits controlled almost the entire area: their first church Il Gesu, located a few steps from the Palazzo Pamphili; second, Sant Ignazio (Sant Ignazio), adjacent to the northern facade of a former colleague. The main thing in it - the dome design Andrea Pozzo (of course, also a Jesuit). On the threshold he seems very impressive, but it should take a few steps forward - and found out that the ceiling of the church is totally flat, and what seemed like a dome - just painted, clever illusion, what love to indulge in the Baroque era.
Most impressed by the Pantheon (Pantheon) produces, if you approach it from behind or from the side: then, instead of accurate, closing the picture area of the facade will be visible powerful, though its roots stretching back to the land of the walls covered with holes and scars. It was here in the two thousand year age of this stocky structures begin to believe.
The Roman Forum - The heart of ancient Rome beat here. Here chosen consuls, decided the fate of Carthage, passed laws, honored the victors and changed money. Here stood the imperial palaces with marble statues, pools and frescoes. Were gladiators, whose fate was decided by one motion of the imperial thumb. People walked in purple togas. Here mapped all the legendary, mythical names, which only appear in the history books: here you are, Tarpeian Rock, from which traitors were thrown - it leads to romantic planted with oleander Via di Monte Tarpeo.
When the Empire fell, the gallery became extinct. More precisely, we have turned into a giant quarry, where all and sundry hauling building material for palaces, churches and defensive towers. What remained, gradually disappearing under the ground and overgrown with grass - the beginning of the Renaissance, these places were known only as Campo Vaccino, cow field, a favorite subject of melancholy landscapes. Relic Hunter, which gradually replaced the shepherds did not change the situation: in place of cows there were people with shovels and only. Life here has disappeared, as if it had never been - was a giant museum, the accumulation of debris, mercilessly sliced Mussolini-Fori Imperiali street. In addition to tourists, there are no one - except that posing for? 5 people dressed as gladiators, but the hawkers offer a disposable camera. At night, they disappear - leaving only ruins behind the fence. Leak out here at night is almost impossible - all manholes sealed; you can only hope the celebrations - readings in the Basilica of Maxentius or any concert of the Three Tenors in the arena of the Colosseum.
Recently, however, began to fight with seclusion. In 2002, an entire summer on the forum allowed for free - you can get past the Temple of Vesta, just along the road from the waterfront to the store. There is even a chance that the idea persists, the more so because the street Fori Imperiali-going daunting: to dig up buried underneath construction time of Caesar, and puts them on public display. What to do with transport - the issue unresolved.
Should warn immediately: Forum (Foro), where the highest concentration found those same remnants of ancient Rome, which is here for generations of artists and tourists - most incomprehensible spectacle in the city. Wander among the debris of columns, tripping over the pavement and uncomfortable grilling on the unforgiving sun, if the case, God forbid, happens in the summer - a very thankless occupation. Especially if you do not bustles Latin history since childhood. If anything, the gaps in education can be filled with the help of local guides - oldies enthusiasts who funny gestures will regale you with stories about heroes and traitors antiquity (20-30). If the same time a little bit, do not despair: to admire the fragments of the past greatness, enough to rise to the Capitol from the streets of San Pietro in Karcher and look down from the observation deck, as far as possible trying to imagine that there is no street Fori- Imperiali there and mash marble columns extends uninterruptedly up to the wall Trajan's markets. Directly below you will be the oldest forum that usually have in mind when they talk about the Forum (Foro, Foro Romano), but the fact that you will see across the road - it's free Imperial (Fori Imperiali), but once they really is a single complex. From the observation deck on Capitol Hill offers spectacular views of the Roman Forum. Senators palace built on a foundation almost completely destroyed by the Roman general state archive Tabularium, closes the west side of the ensemble of the Forum.
Things to Do in Milan
Milan - Cathedral in the Gothic style, whose construction was begun in 1386 and completed in 1965; Dominican monastery, in the refectory of which is the famous fresco of Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper"; Brera Art Gallery; several art museums; Theatre "La Scala".
Things to Do in Venice
In Venice (located on 122 islands, it is crossed by 170 channels) - 400 bridges, the most famous, perhaps, is the "Bridge of Sighs" by which criminals go after the Doge's court; Cathedral of Sts. Brand (828); Palace of the Doges of Venice; granite columns, built in 1180, one of which depicts a winged lion of St.. Mark (the patron saint of Venice), the second - St. Theodore on the crocodile; several art museums.
Things to Do in Florence
Florence - cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (1296-1461) in the Gothic style, decorated with red, green and white marble; bell tower of the XIV century; Baptistery of San Giovanni (XI-XV centuries), known gilded bronze doors, the eastern door, decorated with sculpted scenes from the Old Testament, called the "Gate of Paradise"; The National Museum, which houses a collection of sculptures by Donatello; Fountain of Neptune (1576); Palazzo Vecchio (1299-1314); The Uffizi Gallery - one of the greatest collections of Italian masters; Pitti Gallery with works by Raphael, Perugino, Titian, Tintoretto; the tomb of the Medici family with marble bas-relief by Michelangelo; Medici Riccardi Palace (XV century), which houses the Museum of the Medici; Monastery of San Marino, in the museum of which are the work of Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolomeo, it is the cell of the philosopher of Savonarola; Gallery of the Academy of Fine Arts, which houses the famous sculpture by Michelangelo - David; Archaeological Museum; Franciscan church of Santa Croce (XIII-XIV century), painted by Giotto, it is called the Pantheon of Florence, since it buried Michelangelo Buonarroti, philosopher and politician Niccolo Machiavelli, the composer Rossini.
Italy is located in the temperate and for the most part, sub-tropical zones. The climate in Italy varies greatly from close to the Arctic high in the Alps to subtropical on the coast of the Ligurian Sea and the west coast of the southern peninsula. In northern Italy (Po Valley plain) type of climate transition from subtropical to temperate continental. Hot summer (July 22 - 24) and cold foggy winter (January - around 0). In central and southern Italy from May to September is set heatwave with temperatures up to 40 and humidity of 75%.
Behind Moscow for 2 hours.
Italian. English and French understood almost everywhere in the hotels, restaurants, travel agencies. German language is understood primarily in resort areas in the north Adriatic and lakes.
Euro. 1 EURO = 100 EURO cent.
Visa to Italy is a Schengen, since Italy is one of 15 countries that have signed the Schengen agreement, received it, you can freely visit all the countries of the Schengen zone.
Documents for visa:
• Valid passport (valid for at least 3 months after the expiry of the visa is issued).
• The second valid passport (if any). It is also desirable to provide old (canceled) passport containing a visa, or at least its copy.
• Copies of all pages of internal Russian passport (copies must be of high quality, fuzzy, or fax a copy of the Embassy will not be accepted).
• 2 photos (color, matte, good quality, made recently, on a light background, size - 3,5 × 4,5 cm.
• Completed application form.
• Certificate of employment (required on letterhead) stating position, salary (preferably from 15 000 rubles) and the date of admission to the post.
• Financial guarantees - are welcome but not necessary.
A list of additional documents for visa at your invitation.
• Financial guarantees - account statement, or Traveller's checks in the amount of 50 euros per day for the first entry - is necessary.
• Business invitation on letterhead with original passport details of the invited person, dates and trip purposes, the enumeration guarantees that the firm carries.
• A photocopy of the first page of the passport of the person signing the invitation.
• Hotel reservation for the first entry (you can fax) or phrase in the invitation that stay with an indication of the hotel phone.
• An extract from the Chamber of Commerce no later than three months (can be faxed).
• Ticket or ticket reservation - Optional.
• Medical insurance.
The cost of visas (tourist, business, medical treatment, sports competitions, official invitation, Private enterprise, employment, religious purpose, Transportation, transit) - 35 euros.
Weekends and holidays: January 1 - New Year's Eve, January 6 - Baptism and the Adoration of the Magi, 13-24 February - Carnival time, April - May - Easter holidays (date varies), April 25 - the day of liberation from fascism, May 1 - Labour, June 2 - Proclamation of the Republic, August 15 - Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, November 1 - All Saints' Day, December 8 - Day of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 25 December - Christmas Day, December 26 - St. Stephen's Day. In addition, in many areas and cities marked local holidays. At Christmas and New Year, and in July and August - the so-called period of "Ferragosto" - many companies and institutions will stop working and closed for the holidays.
Receipts, invoices and receipts, restaurants, hotels, campgrounds, shops and other services should be maintained, as the tax office can be checked, for example, when you exit the store or leaving the country with respect to those or other expensive goods. Therefore all should demand an invoice.
Personal safety norms. When walking it is strongly recommended to leave the expensive chains, necklaces and bracelets in the safe room, wearing a bag over his shoulder and be especially attentive to keeping cash. When driving, be aware that in Italy, especially in the southern part of the country, a large number of undisciplined drivers.
Catholicism is the predominant religion. Almost all upcoming tour includes visits to temples, the entrance to which is forbidden in shorts and mini-skirts, bare-chested, shoulders and back.
If you took the bar, for example, a coffee at the bar and drank it in the same place, you pay the cost of COFFEE. If you ever sit down for a minute with your coffee table for bar, you'll have to pay more and restaurant fees, which will almost double the cost of your coffee. Please do not leave money, valuables in the hotel room. The hotel is only responsible for the things that you have left in an individual safe (in the room or at the reception). You can not leave things in the rent a car parked in the driveway. Do not carry large sums of money in their pockets, pay attention to the places where people. Women's handbags are wearing so that they could not rip off the shoulder hooligans on motorcycles. Passport and airline ticket out of the hotel, and in any case do yourself a set of photocopies, which are stored in a suitcase. Beware enter into any relationship with the gypsies.
National characteristics: Italians expansive, hot, impulsive, characterized by high sociability. Appreciate the manifestation of interest in Italy as a country, which is the ancestor of many kinds of arts and crafts. Showing respect and knowledge in this area always makes a good impression. Spirits drink rarely, even the famous Italian grappa is not at a premium in their homeland. Traditionalist Italians prefer not to drink, even beer, local wine is usually consumed as an essential part of every meal. Lengthy toasts are not accepted, and before you have a drink, say "Chin-Chin". As for Italian businessmen, they attach great importance to ensuring that the negotiations were conducted between the occupants of approximately equal status in the business world and society. In order to establish a business relationship rather an exchange of notes with suggestions. Cases when to establish business contacts use the services of intermediaries, the institute is constantly expanding. Equally important for the business community have informal relationships with partners, including the off-duty time.
Traditional cuisine Italy
Italians quickly explain to you that no such thing as "Italian cuisine", in principle, does not exist. Most likely every city and every region has its own distinct cuisine. In the north, you try the risotto, polenta and all sorts of creams and sauces, which will not find in the south. South will treat you with more spicy foods, the original version of pizza and mozzarella - it's in Naples. Always try to try special dishes of each region, as they are often not on the menu for other cities. For example, one of Tuscany will not leave without tasting the meat pheasant (fagiano), wild boar (cinghiale) or truffles (tartufi). You will not be able to visit Genoa without tasting a special dough, which traditionally serves as the basis of a mixture of pasta, potatoes and green beans. Roman food - it's dishes such as spaghetti carbonara, bucatini all'amatriciana (pasta with a spicy tomato sauce and bacon) and trippa (minced meat), which, when well cooked just amazing. Many tourists are already familiar with the famous prosciutto di Parma Parma and Parmesan cheese. Lovers of spicy food should try something in Reggio Calabria, serving special ultra hot salami - salsiccia piccante. Sicily - the birthplace of Italian pasta and ice cream, mixed a culinary traditions of many different cultures that were once on the island. In general, Italian chefs continue to keep the brand and will be able to easily prepare for you a real masterpiece.
In Italy, there are three categories of restaurants, from the most expensive to the cheapest - it's ristorante, trattoria (a simple kitchen and interior) and osteria. Try eating in each category, because cheap does not mean it's bad, and each institution has its own unique atmosphere. To eat like the Italians, have breakfast in the morning (cappuccino or espresso coffee and biscuits) in the nearest cafe, a normal breakfast at about 13:00 and at home, as in the restaurant at the time the lunch break, and a full dinner almost nightly (often before 20.00 or 21:00). For a light snack between the main food, the café, where you can something to drink and eat a panini (sandwich).
In Italy, more cultivated varieties of grapes and produced more wine (almost one-fifth of world production), than in other countries. The most popular wines are: "Trebbiano" - a strong yellow wine with a fruity aroma, served with light vegetarian dishes; "Sangiovese" - made from grapes "Sangiovese" ruby rich color, dry, with excellent flavor. Served with meats and hard cheeses; "Kanin" - bright red, sweet wine. Served for dessert, perfectly combined with Romanesque pastries "chiambella" (Ciambella); "Alban" - sweet yellow wine with a characteristic bouquet. Also, you should try the "Chianti Classico", "Lambrusco". In Rome, the popular "Frascati" in Venice - "Pinot Grigio" or "Bianco" in Florence - "Chianti", "Brunello" and "Vernaccia".
Political system Italy
Italy - a parliamentary republic, acting on the basis of the constitution of 1948, the head of which is the President.
In Italy, there are about 57.3 million. Persons; here - the population density 195 people per square km. The most densely populated region of Lombardy, Campania, Lazio, Sicily, Piedmont and Veneto.
Customs rules allow duty-free up to 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars, 2 liters of table wine or 1 liter of alcohol strength of more than 22%, or 2 liters of alcohol strength to 22%, or 2 liters of sparkling wine; up to 250 ml eau de toilette; 50 milliliters of spirits. For importation into Italy of professional equipment, commercial samples, goods for exhibits for the special permit is required. On the importation of other currencies are no limitations.
Available can take up to 10 thousand euros or the equivalent in other currencies. Removal of large amounts should be allowed by the customs authorities. In addition to personal belongings, every citizen of a country outside the European Union who enters into Italy, could make jewelry, two cameras, one video camera, one radio, one tape recorder, one bicycle, one of the boats (motor can), two pairs of skis, two tennis rackets one canoe, one surfboard.
Medical aid Italy
Before the trip, you need to purchase an insurance policy of any insurance company.
Working hours Italy
When exchanging currency in exchange offices or branches of banks pay attention not only on the exchange rate, but also on the percentage that is taken for the exchange. It should also be noted that in the exchange offices at railway stations percent for foreign currency exchange can reach 10%. As in Russia, in order to change the default currency, you need to show your passport. The maximum amount of exchange no more than $ 500. Approximate time of most banks from 9.00 to 17.00 with a break for lunch.
Shops are open from Monday to Saturday, usually from 8:00 to 20:00. Some open on Sundays. Lunch breaks in stores long enough, usually from 13:00 to 15:30.
Pharmacies marked with a red cross. They are open from 9.00 to 13.00 and from 16.00 to 19.00.
The bus is the main form of public transport in Italy. Ticket cost an average of $ 0.7 to $ 0.88.
Rome Tickets for buses and trams are $ 0.7 and are valid for two trips for 90 minutes. Bus drivers, except for night flights, tickets are not served. Tickets composting, composter is determined by the level of the beginning of the ticket.
Milan ticket for the bus or tram costs $ 0.7 and is valid for unlimited travel for 75 minutes after the first landing. Travel on all modes of transport costs $ 2.47 - for one day, $ 5.95 - for a week.
Florence only kind of public transport - buses. Ticket - $ 0.7 per hour, $ 0.88 - 2 hours, $ 2.94 -24 hour pass.
Venice In this city there are no roads suitable for vehicles, so there's no cars. The only means of public transport - river buses. Ticket for one trip on the route №1 Cost - $ 1.47, on the other routes - $ 2.06. 24-hour pass costs $ 8.24.
Rent a car can be on one indispensable condition - if there is a credit card and an international driving license. Making the contract, ask the manager to explain to you in detail every item of it, especially the section "insurance coverage". Modest rental cars a day will cost you at least $ 90. Than longer you rent a car, the lower the daily cost. Italians are very precisely follow the rules of the road, so if you decide to rent a car, pay attention to the signs along the road, and the labels on the roads, which also means those or other actions of the driver on the road.
Voltage 220 V, a European-style sockets.
The trains in Italy are non-smoking and can not smoke in public areas, if they do not have an isolated smoking areas with ventilation system.
Despite the ubiquity of complex pricing, including payment of all services in Italy tipping 10% of the total bill.
Try to wear clothes of good quality, as elegant clothing significantly raise your rankings in the society and you will always be perceived as a competent and successful business man.
Helpful information Italy
Emergency phone numbers: 112 - Carabinieri (police), 113 - accidents, 118 - Ambulance 115 - fire brigade, 116 - technical assistance for damage to the car.