Peru - the internationally recognized "reserve" monuments of the past. If there is one country in the world, the mysterious attraction which baffled even the best historians, it is, of course, Peru.
This South American country was once the heart of the Inca empire, unique people who thousands of years ago were able to invent the first flying machines and binary language.
Due to aviation in the XX century were accidentally discovered deposited on the surface of the earth enigmatic figures of enormous size. The best-known today are the drawings in the Nazca desert. Mysteriousness of these figures is the incomprehensibility of their appointment, in the dark of the people who created them, as well as the method of coating the surface of the earth. These figures can only be seen from a plane or a high altitude.
Country, rightly called the main historic center in Latin America. Her identity and mystique charm, to attract and fascinate not only historians, archaeologists, but also tireless travelers from around the world. By visiting this amazing place once, I want to come back here again and again.
Peru - a country not only famous architectural complex of Machu Picchu, but also the highest navigational lake in the world - Titicaca and the deepest in the world - Colca Canyon. The largest river in the world - the Amazon - it originates in Peru.
Travel lovers will get acquainted with the most beautiful cities of the country - Lima, Cusco, Puno, Iko, Trujillo, Arequipa, Paracas Peninsula and visit the island Balestas, home to seals, lions, penguins, pelicans, and so on. Etc. ... will make a flight over giant images in the Nazca Desert whose origin is still unknown, will visit Sillustani funerary towers on Lake Titicaca and the Uros Indians acquainted with living on the floating reed islands.
Also, you can not leave the country without visiting the incomparable Amazon - River of the "three sevens" without seeing the world's largest water lily and not from watching bloodthirsty piranhas.
Peru covers an area of 1,285,000 square meters. km, bordered by Colombia and Ecuador in the north, Brazil and Bolivia - to the east, Chile - in the south, and by the Pacific Ocean - to the west. Peru can be divided into three geographic zones. Sierra or Peruvian Andes are rich in flora and fauna. Here you can watch the majestic flight of the condor, feed with palm llama or alpaca and admire the colorful palette of mountain orchids.
More than half of the territory occupied by the Peruvian Amazon jungle. Tropical rain forests are rich in exotic plants and animals, contains a number of species of birds, which is not at all the Latin American continent.
The third geographical area - is a coastal desert, whose territory is the capital of Peru - Lima. Mountain rivers down to the Pacific coast, washed by the sand dunes and form picturesque oases.
Lima - the capital of Peru. The city was founded in 1535 and became the capital of the conquistadors Spanish possessions in America.
Can not say that it is the most beautiful city in the country. It is quite noisy and crowded with locals and tourists. However, the Old Town was declared a UNESCO one of the objects of the World Cultural Heritage of Humanity. In the central part of the area is located Armas. This is the place where Francisco Pizarro gave the first settlement. In its center is a large stone fountain. In the northern part of the square is the Palace of the Government of the residence of the President. Each morning at 11:45 am there is a change of the guard of honor. In the eastern part of the square stands the Cathedral of Santo Domingo. Its construction began in 1564 and ended in 1622. In 1746 during an earthquake the building was destroyed and was rebuilt in 1755. Here, in a small chapel are buried the remains of Francisco Pizarro.
Five minutes from the square is the convent of San Francisco. This building was built in the late 17th century and is practically the only (of similar large buildings) withstand earthquakes in 1687 and 1746, respectively. The monastery is in the Baroque style in yellow and white and is the most beautiful in the city. The main attractions are its cave monastery. Before Lima hosted the first cemetery was buried here about 75 thousand people. Also, there are interesting and the old library of the 17th century.
In Lima, many museums that tell about the history and culture of Peru. Among the most popular is possible to allocate the National Museum, which occupies 3 floors. Here are exhibited collections of pre-Columbian discoveries, national costumes, ceramics and mummies. Tourists are recommended to explore the museum before visiting the ancient Inca cities in the country, because here exhibited exposure with reduced copies of the attractions of these places. The National Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, you can see one of the largest collections of archaeological finds relating to the ancient civilizations of the pre-colonial period.
Also noteworthy in Lima Miraflores shopping district, the center of night life - Barranco quarter, as well as the Mercado Indio.
Despite the fact that Lima is located on the Pacific coast, relax on the local beaches tour is not recommended. The water is dirty, and in the summer months, there is going to a lot of locals. Also there is the possibility of theft. South of Lima along the coast can recommend the beaches of El Silencio, Sinoritas, Caballeros, Punta Hermosa, Punta Negra, San Bartolo, Santa Maria, and the influx of Pukusana. These beaches desert type, with sparse vegetation in the area.
At 80 km from Lima, at an altitude of about 3900 m, is a little-known plateau Markauasi affecting giant stone sculptures of animals (elephants, turtles, camels), no living not only in Peru but also in all of South America, and rock pictures of human faces.
Iquitos - the capital of the Amazon jungle of Peru. You can get here by boat only. The town itself is only interesting because of its A weekly market of Belém, which sells a variety of handmade products of the local tribes.
Tourists come to Iquitos to explore the moist tropical forests, which offer excellent opportunities for hiking. Of the city are daily multi-day hiking trips into the jungle or on boats on the rivers of the region. During the trip, you can see the diverse flora and fauna of the jungle, in addition, right in the jungle opened several resorts where tourists can stay overnight.
Costa (Pacific coast) attractive sand dunes, flocks of flamingos, cormorants, penguins and colonies of sea lions.
Tumbes is located in the northern coast of Peru, near the border with Ecuador. The entire coastal area of the city is occupied by white sand beaches. There is a dry equatorial forest in the National Park Tserros de Amotape with mangroves and tropical rainforest in the conservation area of the city. About 30% of the area of Tumbes declared protected areas, so beach vacation here complemented with clean air and lush vegetation. Beach Puerto Pizzaro (13 km from the city) - the most popular among tourists.
Located south of Tumbes seaside resorts Mancora and Punta Sal. This tranquil resort with a few hotels and many restaurants. In addition to a beach holiday in the northern part of the Costa can practice surfing, because in these areas recorded the highest waves in the world. In Trujillo, Mancora and Punta Sal has recently become a popular diving. Although the dive centers are still few, still divers come here to look at the inhabitants of coastal waters, especially on the sea lions.
Tiwanaku - ancient city - the port on the shore of the lake, located at an altitude of 3625 meters above sea level and covers an area of 450 thousand square meters. m. These mathematical and astronomical estimates include construction of Tiahuanaco to around 15,000 BC Located here are the ruins of the impressive structures masonry, about the same as in Machu Picchu. The largest and most ancient of these buildings is the pyramid Akapana ("artificial mountain" in Quechua), a height of 15 m, the length of the base - 230 m.
Nazca is located in the department of Ica in the south-western part of Peru. 22 km north of the city in a desert land located mysterious drawings, knocked out of the stones, which are only visible from the air. Their dimensions are impressive - they range from 40 m to 8 km. These drawings are tentatively dated XVIII - VI centuries BC. e. It depicts geometric shapes, animals, birds and people. First pictures found during a flight on an airplane in 1939. There are many hypotheses about the purpose of the Nazca ornaments. One of them is the fact that the designs - part of a huge astronomical calendar, the other - that they were caused by aliens from outer space. In order to see the Nazca designs, tourists are offered hour tours on the aircraft.
Cusco was the capital of the Inca empire. The city's name translates from Quechua language as "the navel of the Earth." He really was established in the period of greatest prosperity of the Inca empire, stretching from Peru to Chile and Argentina. Cuzco start sightseeing tours. For example, in Pisac - Inca citadel on top of a mountain range, to the Pyramid of the Moon, in Chincheros, typical village of the Quechua, suiting every Sunday folklore markets.
To the north-west of Cusco, at an altitude of about 3500 m above sea level, is a monumental archaeological complex of Sacsayhuaman ("Bird of Prey gray") - three parallel zigzag walls, tile "the throne of the Incas", 21 Bastion, above which rises the powerful tower each of which was able to hide a thousand warriors.
Trujillo is famous for its churches and monasteries, the archaeological museum and colonial mansions. Trujillo is located near the capital of the ancient Chimu Empire - Chan Chan, built of clay and stones. On the construction of the Pyramids of the Sun and the Moon went millions of stones. Another pyramid - Kao, decorated with colored reliefs can be seen in the archaeological complex of El Brujo.
In the vicinity of the city of Chiclayo in 1987 it was discovered one of the most impressive burial places in the world - "The Shrine of Lord Siponys." It was found during the excavation of a lot of gold and silver jewelry. Another archaeological complex, an outdoor Thor Heyerdahl, attracts tourists to the small town of Tukums.
In towns and villages of the Sierra felt and a 300-year influence of Spanish culture - Catholic style temples, mandatory central Plaza de Armas ("Plaza de Armas"), rectangular "checkerboard" building cities.
The eastern part of the country, it Selva- rainforest, crazy source of the river Amazon, numerous fortresses Incan culture, many of which are still lost in the jungle. One of them - Machu Picchu ("Machu" translated from Quechua means "old", "Picchu" - "Mountain"), located near Sacsayhuaman, discovered only in 1911. There are many assumptions and hypotheses, but so true and it is not known when there was this city, and by whom it was founded. In essence, it is a complex archaeological groups, the number of which currently stands at 24 (and constantly increasing as a result of new research), which are spread over an area of 33 thousand hectares. Special interest visitors is Stone of the Sun - "Intiuatana" which is believed to have played the role of an astronomical observatory. Sacred area, the ruins of the temple of the Three Windows, the ruins of various buildings, stairs, which are more than a hundred, aqueducts, punched in the rocks.
Arequipa is located in southern Peru at an altitude of 2335 m above sea level, between the volcanoes Misti and Chachani Ampat. It is the second largest city in Peru and its major economic center. Arequipa was founded in 1540.
City filled with the spirit of the colonial era. Houses are built of white stone with carved facades. The central area of the city Armas considered the most beautiful in Peru. The main attraction of Arequipa is the convent of Santa Catalina, which was built in 1580. To the public he was discovered only in 1970. Now the internal decoration of the monastery are decorated with paintings and furniture, colonial style. This is a real separate city. Inside the walls of the monastery broken flower gardens with beautiful fountains, there are even small streets connecting the buildings of the complex. Among other interesting places in the city you can visit the Cathedral, the Jesuit church of La Campana, former Mint Casa de la Moneda, and the mansion Casa Mora.
At 180 km from Arequipa is the Colca Canyon. This is the deepest canyon in the world, its depth from the bottom to the mountain peaks up to 3400 m. From the observation deck of the canyon Cruz del Condor can be seen hovering in the air giant Andean condors, which is a landmark in the region. Also worth seeing nearby canyon and pass Kotahuasi Pata Pamba. From Arequipa seen snow-capped volcano El Misti. This active volcano has a height of 5822 m. Very popular ascent to Misty. Hikes are organized here in Arequipa travel agencies. They continued for two days. Before climbing the volcano tourists are advised to stay a day or two in the mountainous areas in the cities of Cusco and Puno, or go here after a visit to the Colca Canyon.
Lake Titicaca is located on the border of Bolivia and Peru, is located at an altitude of 3810 meters, is the world's largest high-navigable body of water - an area of 8287 square meters. km. This ancient lake preserved to this day its fish fauna, more oceanic than freshwater because there are found even sharks.
Travel around the country is best during the dry season - from May to October. The coastal part of the country is arid, so relax on the beach resorts and possible during the rainy season - from January to March, the more it is the hottest months.
The official languages of Peru - Spanish and Quechua (the language of the indigenous people in the country). Quechua spoken mostly in the mountainous regions of the Andes, there is a widespread Indian Aymara.
Currency - Nuevo Sol equal to 100 centimes.
To visit the Republic of Peru, the Russians need a visa, which can be obtained within a few working days in Moscow. To do this, you need to pay the application fee. To obtain a visa are required valid passport, airline tickets round trip, an invitation from the host and the completed application form. When departing from the country paid the airport tax.
Peru - one of the safest countries for tourists in South America. Nevertheless, one must be careful when visiting crowded places - such as, for example, urban markets. Luggage, handbags, cameras and camcorders must always hold his hand.
Political system Peru
The head of state - the president. The main legislative body of Peru is a bicameral parliament. The country is divided into 25 administrative - territorial departments.
Almost half the population (45%) - the Indians, mestizos - 37% of Europeans - 15%, other ethnic groups - Japanese, Chinese, Africans. State religion - Catholicism (90% of the population).
The import of cigarettes - 200 pcs. or 200 grams of tobacco, alcoholic beverages - up to 3 liters, clothing items and cosmetics for personal use items photographic, audio and video equipment - 1 each item, gifts - totaling up to $ 300. USA.
Denied free import and export of weapons, drugs, currency values, objects and works of art, historical significance.
When crossing the border must present a passport with a visa and a completed registration card personally Migration Service of Peru, which shall include: full name, date and place of birth, nationality, profession, place of residence, place of intended residence, passport number , point of departure, the name of the carrier. A copy of the card must be maintained during the entire stay in Peru and present it when leaving the country during the passage of immigration control.
Medical aid Peru
Those who wish to visit the jungle must provide proof of Vaccinations against yellow fever. To fully protect yourself against yellow fever, you should make the vaccine, at least 10 days before the visit of the jungle.
Peru occupies a vast territory, and therefore is the main mode of transport aircraft. Flight Lima - Cusco takes 55 minutes. The railway connects the Sacred Valley of the Incas, Cusco, Machu Picchu with Lake Titicaca and Arequipa with Titicaca. The train from Cuzco to Puno (Lake Titicaca) is about 10 hours. Quite popular bus service. The buses are comfortable, but very long journeys. For example, Bus Lima - Puno is about 42 hours. Small caveat: in Peru is often not observed timetable of all modes of transport, so the transplant on a plane, planning trips by rail, etc. be done with a margin time.
Tipping (approximately 10% of the cost) in bars, restaurants, hairdressers, hotels are already included in the bill.