Romania - is a place where relaxation is diverse and interesting. Want to party? In Romania, he is waiting for you! Swimming, sunbathing, watching beautiful places and attractions, Dracula's castle, to be treated on a unique resort, have fun, take care of their appearance in the modern spa facilities, delicious to eat, drink great wine and enjoy a holiday you will, if you choose to Romania.
Romania is located in southeastern Europe. It is bordered on the north by Ukraine in the west to Hungary in the south and south-west - with Serbia and Montenegro in the south - with Bulgaria in the east - with the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. The border with Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro forms the Danube River, which forms at the confluence of the Black Sea vast delta. In the south-east by the Black Sea. Country's total area of 237.5 thousand. Sq. km.
The capital of Bucharest.
Romania - a country with a rich past, interesting culture and charming nature. Hundreds of tribes that swept through the area in the era of the Great Migration, gave this land their own culture and their own distinctive traditions. Here there are long beaches of the Black Sea and the scenic Carpathian Mountains, and a unique delta of the Danube, and many historical sites that attract thousands of tourists to the country.
The country's capital - Bucharest, is the land of ancient Wallachia, in the very south of the country. Founded in 1459, the city became the capital of Romania in 1862, and currently is the largest cultural and industrial center of the country. Bucharest leaves quite a mixed impression. On the one hand - it's an interesting historical center, rich in architecture and many historical monuments. On the other - hundreds of buildings faceless architecture, the widespread desolation and grooming largely characterize the unenviable economic situation of the country. The main attraction of the town is the "Old Bucharest" with its narrow streets, small squares and many historical sites. Interested in the Palace of Justice (1864), the presidential palace in the palace Cotroceni (1893-1895), the palace Konstakudilo (1900), the Royal Palace (1937), Arc de Triomphe (1920), the building of the National Bank (1885), Piazza Republica, Athenaeum, University Square, Curtea Veche (Old Yard), a caravanserai Hanul lui Manuk, yard Karul-ku-Bere ("Tal beer", 1879), the building University and the Institute of Architecture. Special attention is given great palace of Parliament, who is in the area of second place in the world.
Preserved many old churches - the Cathedral of the Patriarchate (XVII c.), The Cathedral of St.. George Old (XIX c.), The Church of St.. Aron (XV c.) Stavropoleos (1724), Patriarch (1665) and Krotsulesku and monasteries Plumbuita (1559-1568), the Antim (1715) and Mihai Voda. The best way to learn about the history and culture of the country - is its museums. In Bucharest, you can visit the Museum of Art of Romania in the Royal Palace, the National History Museum in the palace Mail (1889), the Cotroceni National Museum, the Museum of the village (17 ha, one of the world's first ethnographic museum in the open air) on Lake Herastrau Geology Museum, art, the Museum of Natural History "Grigore Antipas" and others. Notwithstanding any disasters, Bucharest continues to be one of the most "green" cities in Eastern Europe. Parks such as Chizhmidzhiu (1850), Herastrau (1936), Parkul Carol (1906) and the Botanical Garden near Cotroceni Palace, widely known even outside the country.
In the vicinity of the city, among the dozens of lakes, concentrated many equally interesting historical monuments - palaces Stirbey (1835-1849 year, now is a comfortable hotel) and Mogosoaia (1702), monasteries Blueberries (XVII century.) Tsigenesht (1780 .) Kelderushan (1632-1654), the Paserya (1847), Buftea, the famous monastery of Snagov (1408) on the island in the middle of Lake manor Heresht (1644) and the zoo in Baneasa.
In the nearby districts of the capital of Wallachia worth seeing Manor Yard, Biserika-Domneasca ("Church of the manor") and Monastery Curtea de Arges in the same city, the ruins of the castle of Vlad Tepes (Dracula), the ruins of the castle of the Jews (193-211 g), about Campulung, reserves "Mud Volcanoes" (field of fumaroles) and "Mynzelesht" (34 salt caves) in the county of Buzau, COZIA Monastery (XIV c.) near Calimanesti, Comana Monastery (1461) in the same village, the park and the monastery Romynesku Bucovat (1506-1512 g) in Craiova (1900-1903), the Chindia tower (XVIII c.) in Targovishte, magnificent monasteries Hurez (1690-1697), the Dintr un leading to issue (XVI-XVII century. ) and talk (XIII c.) in the county of Valcea, picturesque foothill town of Targu Jiu, Fort roots (XVIII c.) and the most ancient monastery of the country - Tismana (XII century.) in the county of Gorj, or relax in the resorts Luck Sarat ("Salt Lake"), the Market or the Baia de Fer. At 126 km. east of Bucharest is famous for its curative mud and mineral water resort Amara.
Between the delta of the Danube and the Carpathian Mountains stretches of the Danube valley, ancient Dacia, which is the breadbasket of the country, and the focal point of the most interesting monuments. Business card of the area - hydroelectric complex "Iron Gate" with its network of reservoirs. Discovered in the design of complex historical monuments on display now at the Museum "Iron Gate". But the land of Dacia still contains a large amount of evidence of bygone eras - the ruins of a Roman camp Drobeta (II-V in. District. E.), The island Shimyan (here translated outbuildings Ottoman period and the Mosque of the XVIII century., Who were on the now submerged lands ), fortified goto-Dacian settlement in Sprynchenata (II c. BC. e.), the ruins of a Byzantine fortress in Suchidava with the famous "Secret pit", the ruins of the Roman city of Romulus north Caracal wooden church in Perosh-Lelyaska and the ruins of fortress of Valium Emperor Trajan in Turnu Magurele.
In the Southern Carpathians, at the foot of the array Buchedzh is known Prahova Valley with its many resort areas. A self Bucegi plateau famous for its erosional forms - wind and rain over thousands of years, "carved" out of local rock amazing sculptures - Sphinx, Harp, The Old Man and others.
On the Black Sea coast is the port city of Constanta - Tomis antique polis (VI cent. BC. E.). City rich in historical monuments - the Roman wall with "Tower of butchers" (VI c. N. E.), A monument to Ovid (he was exiled here and buried here), Roman mosaics (III-VI in. District. E.) The Genoese lighthouse (XIII c., operates in our day), Mahmoud mosque II (1910), the Orthodox Cathedral (1898) and Church (1908.). You can visit the Museum of Natural History and Archaeological Museum, Maritime Museum, Ethnography Museum of Astronomy, casino, aquarium, dolphinarium, musical and dramatic theater.
In the vicinity of Constanta interesting Histria fortress (the ancient Greek settlement in the country, 657 BC. E.), A triumphal arch of Trajan (106-109 AD. E.) Fortress Tomis, Callatis, Istria, Bala, Babadag and Kapidava, the famous monastery and the cave of the Derwent, and Roman monuments in Adamklisi. Along the coast runs a whole series of top-class resorts.
Deserves special attention lies 70 km. north of Constanta area of the Danube Delta. The second longest river in Europe forms at the confluence of the sea dense network of creeks and oxbow lakes that make up the huge (about 6 thousand. Sq. Km.) Swampy area, a converted through the efforts of the Romanian environmentalists UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. There are more than 280 bird species, of which about 180 species nest in the region, while the rest come here from all over Europe. By "bratsulam" (Danube sleeves) Kealia, Sulina and St.. Gheorghe from Tulcea go steamers, organized many excursions to places of mass gathering of birds, rafting and kayaking, allocated special areas for sport fishing and bathing. Of no less interest is the Museum of the Delta in Tulcea, basil Nikulitsel (370 AD. E., The oldest Christian building of the country), Xhosa Flying, Sakhalin Island, numerous monasteries, Ialomita lake and forest Flying, Kayafele and Moroyu - the real nature reserves.
Quite different looks north-western part of the country - the famous Transylvania. "The cradle of the Romanian people", the land known for its many historic sites, the original culture and the magnificent nature of the Carpathians. In Alba Iulia worth a visit is the oldest museum in Romania (opened in 1794), The Citadel (1716-1735), the magnificent cathedral (XIII c., Rebuilt in the XV century.), And the prince's palace (XIII-XVIII c.). In the vicinity of Alba Iulia interesting one of the city's oldest fortification in Transylvania Ayude church in Sebes, the Museum of the gold mines in Rosia Montana, the only one in Eastern Europe glacial cave in Skerishoare, ancient churches, monasteries and castles of the county of Arad.
Border with Hungary northern counties can offer the tourist, along with a unique culture, attractions such as the fortress of Oradea (XI c.), The Museum "Cara Krishurilor" Evangelical Church in Bistrita (XV c.), The cave complex in the county of Bihor, spa resorts Syndzheorz Bay, Piatra Fyntynelor, Monyasa, Baile Felix, styn de Vale et al.
Brasov, the ancient center of Transylvania, is worth a visit for the sake of exploring the monuments of the feudal era. The main attractions are the remains of the citadel (1395-1553), the Church of St. Nicholas (1495), one of the iconic places in the country - Biserika-Neagra (Black Church, XIV-XV c.), Church of St. Bartholomew (XIII c.), the Historical Museum in the building of the XV century. town hall (1420) and many colorful houses XVII-XVIII century. Only 15 km away. from Brasov is the famous Bran Castle (1377-1382), the least and has no relation to Dracula, but in itself is interesting enough - now home to the Museum of feudal art. 8 km. from Brasov located not less impressive castle Rishnov and fortified church in Prejmer.
Cluj-Napoca and Cluj County - one of the most interesting tourist areas of the country. In Cluj-Napoca interesting church of St. Michael (1396-1532), the Reformed Church (1486), the palace Banfi (1774-1785) - the former residence of the Prince of Transylvania (today the Museum of Art), Municipal Museum, the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania with the ethnographic village on Mount Hoy, Botanical Garden (founded in 1872) and more than hundreds of old buildings.
Special attention is given Maramures county - one of the most mountainous and rich mineral waters of the country. Business card area - Chimitirul-Fun ("Merry Cemetery") in Sepyntse - the only memorial structure in the world where death and all associated rituals are presented in a humorous way - painted crosses, funny and original epitaph carved monuments. But the main attraction of the area - the rich culture of the local population and great craftsmanship of artisans.
Ancient Transylvanian town of Sighisoara, birthplace of Vlad Tepes, and one of the most picturesque cities in the country, located in the county of Mures. The Old Town is surrounded by a wall, which turns it into a fortress. It survived intact over hundreds of medieval houses, Mountain Church (XIV c.) With a unique wooden staircase, and a clock tower with a unique astronomic. In the vicinity are the locks Bethlen (XV-XVII c.), Krish (XVI c.), Teleki (XVIII c.) Dumbrevoara (XVII century.), As well as strength and Reformed Church (1316-1442 g) in Tyrgu- Mures.
Timisoara, Timis county capital - another well-preserved old town. Worth visiting the castle Huniyazov (1443-1447), the fragments of the Bastion, Orthodox Metropolitan Cathedral (1934-1946 year, now a museum of medieval art), to examine the pseudo-column in the center of the city, erected in 1851 by the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I , the Catholic Cathedral (1744-1748), the municipality (1734), Piazza Victoria, Museum of Banat Museum Banatski Village and plenty of green parks and gardens. Mineral springs in Buziyash, Kelacha Ivanda and provide excellent opportunities for rest and treatment.
Moldova - the most north-eastern region of the country. It is an ancient land with an impressive cultural monuments, many of which are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The most interesting monuments of Moldova - Borzeshtskaya Church (1494), Temple Koszul (1535), the Church of St.. John the Baptist (1490) in Vaslui, fortified church Precista (1647) in Galati, Cotnari castle, chapel Stephen the Great (1499) and the fortress-Bytkov Doamney in Piatra Neamt, Neamt fortress (XIV c.) Varatic monastery (XVIII c.), monasteries Voronets (1488) Humor (1530) and Moldovita (1584) in the county of Suceava fortress De Skaune, the Monastery of St.. John, the Church of St.. Dmitry St. Resurrection and Mireuts in Suceava, Neamt monasteries zone - Neamt, Agapia, Veratek, Sekou, Gothic fortress (VI-III in . BC. e.) in Stynchesht ruins goto-Dacian fortress (IV-III c. BC. e.) in Breheshesht, nature reserve and a unique Tudor Park bison in Vynator.
Iasi - the capital of Moldova since 1564, is considered the most romantic city in Romania. Each of the many rulers of Moldova left in the trail itself in the form of a monument. The most famous church considered Trey-Ierah (1635), the church Mitropolitane (1833-1839) - the one of the pilgrimage centers (here are the relics of St.. Paraskeva), Arges Monastery (1512-1521), the Church of St.. Nicholas Nicholas (1492), the Palace of Culture, the Museum of Reunion in the castle of Jassy (1806), home to the Metropolitan Dosoftei first printed installation in the country, the building of the University and the palace-John Cuza in Rudzhinoase.
The climate is continental temperate. For seaside resorts of Romania in the spring, summer and autumn months warm mild weather with a long swimming season from May to October. The sea breeze does not allow to overheat even on the hottest day.
Far from Moscow at 1:00. On the last Sunday in March to last Sunday in October, clocks are moved forward one hour.
The official language is Romanian. The schools teach English and French.
Leu (plural "lei", ROL), equal to 100 baths. Banknotes in circulation are in denominations of 2,000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000 and 1 million. Lei, as well as coins in 500, 1000 and 5000 lei. Loose Change "bath" virtually withdrawn from circulation. From 1 July 2005 was put into circulation new "leu-denominated", the value of all goods and currency denomination of "numb" four zeros. All prices in Romania and will be indicated in the "old" non-denominated, lei and "new", denominated. The "old" and "new" ley will jointly be in circulation by the end of 2006 and will be gradually withdrawn from circulation.
For a trip to Romania Russian citizens need a visa.
Documents required to obtain a visa:
- Completed application form, the application;
- 1 photo 3x4 cm.
The cost of a single entry visa - $ 25 multiple - $ 60, a tourist or transit - $ 15.
When crossing the border customs may require the production of money to stay in the country at the rate of $ 30 per day, but not less than $ 300 for the entire trip.
Due to the high level of inflation, prices have changed quite rapidly, although in recent years there has been some stabilization in this matter. In tourist areas, the prices in the shops and markets are often cited and in lei and in euro.
The country belongs to the list of the most corrupt countries in the world. Virtually no "difficult moments" can not be solved without a bribe an official. While Bucharest is safer than most other European capitals. Petty theft and fraud, though fairly widespread, but generally thrive away from the main attractions of the country and the eye of police, which in this country has a very broad mandate. Checks on the streets are often, but conducted carefully and thoroughly. In that case, you should always carry a copy of your passport or driving license. With extreme rigidity prosecuted drug use - even a foreigner can be convicted for drug-related offenses for up to 7 years. Very frequent petty theft, fraud, currency and credit cards, sometimes scammers are dressed in uniforms of the police or a taxi driver.
Milk and milk products throughout pasteurized and considered safe to eat. Local meat, poultry, seafood, fruits and vegetables are considered to be relatively safe for consumption, but the products from the market require compulsory treatment. The natural risks also include the earthquake, the most frequently occurring in the south and south-west of the country, as well as landslides.
Traditional cuisine Romania
Classification of Romanian wines in line with European standards. Wines are divided into "running", which in turn are divided into table (VM) and quality dining (VMS), and "quality", is divided into top-quality wines (VS) and quality wines with controlled region name (VDOC). In turn, the wine class VDOC, divided into wines with controlled region name (DOC), controlled wine region name and the degree of quality (DOCC), vintage of full maturity (CMD), late harvest wines (PT) or selective harvest (CS ), fine wine (CIB), late harvest wines (CSB) and the vintage of the noble maturity (CMI). In accordance with this classification is determined by the price of the product, but in general, the local wine is very cheap.
Political system Romania
The head of state - the president, elected for a four-year term. Head of Government - Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister. Legislative - bicameral parliament (Senate - 140 seats, and the Chamber of Deputies - 345 seats).
About 22.2 million. Persons. Ethnic composition: 89.5% - Romanians, 6.6% - Hungarians, 2.5% - Roma, 0.3% - the Germans, 0.3% - Ukrainians, 0.2% - Russian-Lipovans 0.2 % - Turks and other nationalities.
Officially allowed to bring into the country foreign exchange within $ 50,000, but the sum of more than 1,000 require a declaration at the entrance. Permitted to export 5,000 lei in the Romanian currency, and only the notes in 1000 and less than MDL. Gifts worth up to $ 100 may be imported duty-free. Duty-free import may be: 4 p. wine and 1 liter. hard liquor, 200 cigarettes, 200 grams. coffee and cocoa (for personal use).
Medical aid Romania
Country is sufficiently unfavorable to the epidemiological situation. From time to time recorded outbreak of anthrax in the Danube Delta, viral meningitis in the northern and eastern regions, typhus, hepatitis and rabies - in rural areas. Health insurance is required of international standard.
Medical care in Romania quite limited, there is a serious shortage of essential drugs and qualified personnel.
Working hours Romania
Banks and currency exchange are available Monday to Friday from 9.00 to 12.00, currency exchange offices - from 9.00 to 12.00 and from 13.00 to 15.00. In the major resort areas of work hours are usually extended to 1500-1600.
Shops are open Monday to Friday from 9.00 to 18.00 with a break for lunch from 12.00 to 15.00 in the different stores. In large cities, there are shops with non-stop schedule. Holiday usually Saturday and Sunday, but some outlets work and these days, although abbreviated schedule.
Intercity buses are mostly old enough. The price of travel is slightly higher than on the train. Tickets purchased at the box office or bus station (in the course of another) from the driver.
Road and driving rules
Vehicular traffic sided. Maximum speed in towns and villages is limited to 50 km \ hour out of the city - 90 km \ h and 120 km \ h - on motorways (expressways of 113 km.). Car owners should always carry your International Driving Licence, car documents (lease) and the "green card." The permissible level of alcohol in the blood - 0 ppm. Seat belts are compulsory for all the occupants.
All roads are marked according to international standards, but are in pretty bad shape. Even in Bucharest main streets crossed the tram tracks, poorly lit and have worn the roadbed. In the province of the road even worse - many roads are simply broken agricultural machinery and almost can not be restored. Even where road works are carried out, they are almost marked and often road machinery weeks worth on the canvas without moving and without it there was no light signals. Romanian drivers are aggressive enough on the road.
In large and medium-sized cities public transport is quite well organized, but often crowded (usually runs from 5.00 to 23.00). Tickets are sold in specialized or tobacconists and composted after planting. In Bucharest transport fairly modern and inexpensive. Buses, trolleys and trams usually crowded, but cheap (tickets, valid for one trip, there are about 6 thousand. Lei and must be purchased before boarding the booth, and then punched in the cabin). Most routes operate controllers. Travel express buses require that you purchase a special magnetic cards in kiosks RATB.
Magnetic card for the subway (Bucharest, three lines) are sold in kiosks at the entrance (12 thous. Lei on 2 trips). Metro operates from 5.00 to 23.30 with an average interval between trains 5-8 minutes. Station names are not always clearly visible, as is usually written on a separate plate in a frame and placed in a rather awkward places.
The most versatile and cheapest form of transport all over the country - a taxi. Payment is due on the counter and is about 6.5 thousand. Lei per kilometer. Taxi drivers usually speak only Romanian, telephone operators and speak in English. If the meter is not present, it is best to agree on payment in advance. In all the cities of Romania taxis can be ordered by telephone or in parking lots at airports, bus terminals, train stations, stops, and so on. D. Public taxis can be identified by the checkered on one side. Private taxis are labeled R and RO on the roof. They work without meters, more expensive, but they are easier to catch. It is not recommended to sit in the car belonging to private carriers. In this environment, frequent cases of outright fraud.
Potable water Romania
Tap water is usually chlorinated and relatively safe, but can cause stomach upset. It is recommended to use only bottled or boiled water. Romania is currently experiencing a shortage of water, so in some areas (especially around Bucharest and other large cities), the water in the line served only a few hours a day. In the mountains, this problem is almost not worth it. Drink water from mountain springs safely.
Voltage is 220 V, 50 Hz. Bi-pin sockets. Some luxury hotels set the European standard outlet.
Smoking is prohibited in public transport, in almost all films and theaters. Photographing military installations, bridges and ports is prohibited. In some places (mainly the majority of palaces and some churches) for permission to take photographs need to pay about 2 thousand. Lei.
Tipping is not customary. You can leave a 5-10% in an exclusive restaurant, or if the cost of the service included in the bill - round score in a big way. The taxi charge is not mandatory.
Helpful information Romania
Supplemental telephone network - 931.
International negotiations - 971.
Long-distance calls - 991.
Information for tourists - 951.
Railway books (from 05.00 to 23.00) - 952 (reference for lost luggage - ext. 5764), (9521) 018-60-09 or (52) 223-08-80.
Current local time - 958.
Taxi - 953.
Ambulance - 961.
Hospital emergency assistance - 962.
Police - 955.
Fire assistance - 981.
Romanian Automobile Club ACR - 9271.