Sweden is a quiet Northern villages with wooden houses painted in red and decorated with national ornaments, bustling towns, the coast with beautiful sandy and pebbly beaches, over which hang bizarre rocks. Sweden is very diverse and rich in contrasts...
Sweden is located in Northern Europe, in the Eastern and southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. West Sweden is bordered by Norway, on the North-East Finland, and from the East and South it is washed by the Baltic sea and the Gulf of Bothnia. In the South of the Straits of öresund, the Kattegat and the Skagerrak separates Sweden from Denmark. In Sweden includes two large Islands in the Baltic sea Gotland and öland.
The topography of the country is elevated, North-Western part of the country is mountainous (the highest point is mount Kebnekaise, 2111 m) and bordered on the East by the vast plateau on the South, the terrain is more level and abounds in rivers and lakes (in the country almost 90 thousand ponds). Most of the country is covered with forests, in the North's vast territory is the tundra area of Swedish Lapland. The coastline is heavily indented and abounds in skerries and island groups. The country area is 450 sq km
The Capital Stockholm.
Sweden richly endowed with natural beauty and attractions - the green fields of the South of the country and the harsh tundra of Lapland, the green hills of the West and wooded cliffs Norbotten, picturesque Islands and skerries of the South and the tranquil shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, a huge lake system and many wild animals - all this is known to attract huge number of tourists. And its rich history and beautiful city will familiarize you with the unique culture of the country
Stockholm lies on 14 Islands on the shores of lake mälaren and the Strait of Norstrem, and is considered one of the most beautiful capitals in the world. The first mention of Stockholm belongs to 1252, and from the XIII century the city was the permanent residence of the Swedish kings and the capital of the huge in the territory of Sweden. Old town - Gamla Stan, entirely situated on the island of Stadsholmen and closed to vehicles. Here are the famous Royal Palace (1754) with the Royal chapel and Antique Gustav III Museum, and the Palace Church, the Cathedral. Nicholas (XIII-XV centuries, the place of coronation of Swedish monarchs), the Armoury, the Royal mint, the Treasury, the Palace Oxenstierna (here now Ministry of education), Tessin Palace (Slottsbacken) and the Stockholm stock exchange on the square Stortorget.
In the neighbouring island of Riddarholmen (Knights island") there are several unique palaces - the Wrangel Palace (now here the Swedish court of appeal), the Palace Stenbock (in our days - the Supreme administrative court and the Palace of the Bund which now houses the Supreme court. Also interesting Riddarholmen Church (XIII-XV centuries), the burial place of Swedish kings and aristocrats, and from 1807 - luxury Museum. Parliament building (1905) is located on the island of Helgeandsholmen ("the island of St. Spirit") and is open to the public, and in the basement is underground Museum of medieval Stockholm.
Downtown or I - Central to shops and theatres, restaurants and offices, the center of business activity of the capital and the traditional location of embassies and government agencies.
Area attractions include Park Kungstradgarden, Government office "Rosebud", Ministry of foreign Affairs, the Opera house, pedestrian street Drottninggatan and other District of Östermalm interesting Park Hamletmachine and the Royal library and the Royal stables near the Drama theatre. There are also the most picturesque street of the city - quay Strandvagen, walked on the old trams and Park Nobelprice and Diplomatstaden ("city diplomats"). The Vasastan neighbourhood (Vasastan) lies to the North of the city centre and is famous for its houses of the XIX century, shops, restaurants and theatres. Here is an interesting Gustaf Vasa Church (1906), picturesque street Restrengthen Observatory, Karl Harleman (1735), etc.
District and djurgården island lies to the East of the historic centre of Stockholm. In the Western part of the island lie the most famous tourist attractions - the Palace Roosendaal (1820), the amusement Park and the open air Museum Skansen (founded in 1891), and also the famous zoo, the Park "gröna Lund" (1883), many museums, cinema Cosmonova with a screen area of 740 square meters, the Museum of wooden architecture Jurgenshagen, which contains more than 150 buildings of different ages from all over Sweden, tower Connectornet (height 155 m), and all the southern part of djurgården is a huge part, and only in the world, Eco-Park. In its Northern part are the Maritime Museum and the Polytechnic Museum and the famous museums Vase on national relics - the Royal ship Vasa that sank during her maiden voyage in 1628 and raised from the seabed in 1961 Here you can see the steam icebreaker "Abitare" (one of the first in the world), the ship from the lighthouse "Farscape and unique sculpture Museum of Millais, located on a man-made ledges in the cliffs of Lidingo. In the National city Park is the Palace Eriksdale (1640-1644,), in the greenhouse and the former Royal stables opened the Swedish Museum of sculpture. Also worth a visit is the Palace of Rosersberg (1634-38,) exposing the interiors of the XVIII-XIX century Palace Stromsholm (XV century) with the exposition of the Swedish art of the XVII century, higher school of horsemanship and hippological center.
The Kungsholmen district ("king's island") is known primarily for its city Hall (1911-1923,), which is traditionally held the ceremony of awarding the Nobel prizes. Town hall tower "Tre kronor" with a gilded dome is the emblem of Stockholm and a superb observation deck. The southern part of the city, on a budget or just Seder, is a rather unusual place - the old wooden shacks made in the list of cultural heritage of the capital, surrounded by a motley mixture of the beautiful houses of the XVIII-XIX centuries and modern buildings, including such unusual buildings, as a semicircular building the "bow" or unusual skyscraper "Cedartown". Near Vagnharad lies the summer residence of king Gustav V Palace Tulkens (1720). Nearby points of interest also lies the oldest among the existing Russian Orthodox churches outside Russia - Transfiguration Church (XVII century).
In the city more than 75 museums and 100 art galleries, the national Museum, the Swedish national portrait gallery in the castle gripsholm, the Royal Treasury in the cellars of the Royal Palace, the national history Museum, the Museum of modern art, the Museum of natural history, the Museum of butterflies and birds in Hagaparken, science and technology Museum, the Maritime Museum, the Swedish Museum of the history of Economics in the building of the Royal coin Cabinet, the Royal armouries Museum (the oldest Museum in the country), Gallery style, national Museum of Ethnography and art gallery "Liliales". Attention deserve Swedish center graphics, the Jewish Museum, the ceramics Museum, the Museum of biology with a magnificent panorama, Swedish Museum of architecture, the original Alginski silk weaving factory Museum, the toy Museum, the Botanical garden Bergius with exotic greenhouse Edward Anderson, Langholmen prison Museum, the only Museum in the world of dance and theatre Danse", international puppet theatre-Museum, the Museum Junibacken" (dedicated to the books by Astrid Lindgren), the Museum of antiquity in the Mediterranean and the Middle East, the medical history Museum, the music Museum, the Nordic Museum, Postal Museum, House-Museum of Olson and the eponymous gallery modern art, Swedish Museum of sport, Strindberg Museum, the Museum of telecommunications, Tobacco Museum in the old taverns, Axholme Museum-fortress coastal artillery, Historical Museum of wines and spirits, the Museum of the Royal army, historic farmhouses Leste and Nines (XVII-XX centuries), the Palace of Paint with a collection of Swedish art of the XVII century and the Palace of Vadstena (XVI-XVII centuries), as well as the Museum-aquarium Aquaria water Museum" and other
In the suburbs is the residence of the Swedish Royal family - the famous Palace of Drottningholm (XVII century) with a magnificent Park, the Chinese pavilion (1753) and Drottningholm court theatre (1766), in which each summer hosts Opera and ballet performances and concerts in the original decorations of the XVIII century In 60 km West of Stockholm lies the most ancient Royal residence country gripsholm castle (XIV century), whose interiors are among the most luxurious in Europe. In the Swedish National portrait gallery (1822), located in the castle, exhibited portraits of the most prominent figures of Swedish history.
On the island of Bjorko (50 km from Stockholm) very interesting excavations of the first cities in the country - Tag, often abominables in medieval Chronicles. Today on the territory of the Tag (included in the list of sites under UNESCO protection) excavated citadel, city walls, more than a thousand graves of the Viking age and the Viking Museum. 47 km to the North-West of Stockholm lies the first capital of the Swedish state - Sigtuna, founded in 980 ad, Here is an interesting tower of St. Lars (1100), the Gothic Church of St. Mary (XIII century), the castle and the former convent of Skokloster, excavations of ancient streets and the Palace of Rosersberg (XVII century), in 1762 which was a Royal residence. Linköping famous Cathedral of the XII century and the castle of the XIII century, and the norrköping - Hedwig Church (XVII century).
Gothenburg is situated on the West coast of the country, is the second largest city in Sweden and the most important port of the country. The city is famous for its clean beaches, beautiful landscape with many forests and lakes, and picturesque archipelago of hundreds of Islands near the city limits (access for foreigners is limited as some Islands are military zone). The Gothenburg, the residence of the Bishop of Sweden and the location of one of the oldest universities in Europe, attracts millions of tourists for its old buildings, the remains of the fortress ditches (now filled with water and turned into channels) and an Art gallery. Also interesting Exchange (XIX century), a huge Park Kungsparken and Opera theatre of Stora Teatern" (1859), the area Gotaplatsen with the famous fountain "Poseidon" (1931) and Concert hall (1935, is considered one of the best halls of the planet), Hall (1672), artillery Arsenal Kronhuset (1643, the oldest building in the city, it is now a historical exhibition), 62-metre Sea tower and Sea life centre near the port, the Christina Church (XVII century), Home of the East India company (1750), in which now there are Historical and Archaeological museums, the Fort Elfsborg (XVII century), as well as ultra-modern skyscraper "Gothenburg Utkilen" unexpected red-and-white color scheme. On main street, Avenue, extending from Gotaplatsen, there are many shops and restaurants, pubs and cafes, cinemas and entertainment centers, as well as the art Museum and city library. In the Western part of the Avenue are focused art galleries and shops selling art and Handicrafts. Also widely known exhibition & conference centre "Svenska Stock", concert arena "Scandinavium", the stadium Ullevi stadium, sports complex "per Heden, recreation Park Liseberg, etc. In Gothenburg there are 16 museums, among which the most interesting City Museum, Art Museum, Ethnographic Museum, Museum of Ross (only in Sweden Museum of art crafts and design), the medical history Museum, the Museum of banking, Observatory, Museum of military history, "the Skansen kronan," Museum of science "Experimentum", natural history Museum and the Maritime Museum of Sjofartshotellet the Museum with an aquarium.
Malmö is located in the South of the country, in the province of the Scan. Here is an interesting Museum of history and art, the Gothic Church of Saint-Peticure (1319), the Renaissance town hall (1546,) and castle "Malmohus" (1542), which in our days is an Art Museum with a superb collection of paintings by Russian artists. Nearby is the town of Ystad, famous for its Church of the virgin Mary (Stortoget, XIV century) and the monastery Greyfriars (XIII century) with an interesting Museum of local history and culture. Ancient Lund, over a thousand years, which is the religious capital of Scandinavia, is known far outside the country. Here you should see the Romanesque Cathedral (1145 A.D.), the remains of the ancient Church of Drotten Courcerin, estate, Santa Maria Minor (XII-XIII century), Renaissance Royal Palace (XVI century), as well as the museums of cultural history, antiquities and decorative arts. In Sweden there are several churches of the XIV-XVII centuries
North-East of malmö is one of the oldest cities in the country - Squid, which in 1397 was signed "Kalmar Union", in fact uniting the Scandinavian countries under the auspices of Denmark. Here are interesting remains of the fortress Calmarius (XII century), the castle of Kalmar (XIV-XVI centuries) and the Baroque Church Domkyrka (XVI century).
In contrast, Squid in the Baltic sea lies the largest (2960 sq. km) and the famous island of the country - Gotland. In the Viking times on this superb island, the very nature of "adapted" for the defense, was an important trading center, and then the base of the Hanseatic League. To have survived the many churches of the Baltic-Gothic style, which in the middle ages there were more than a hundred, burials of the bronze age under the huge mounds of stone, the famous memorial Gotland stele (V century) and the remains of many buildings belonging to the different Nations of the era of "the Great migration". Also the island is also popular as a resort area - the surface, which represents an elevated plateau with steep banks, dotted with karst formations. Coniferous and deciduous forests, as well as focal peatlands, give the landscape a special charm, and numerous narrow beaches, picturesque green fields and picturesque fishing villages attract fans of the "holiday village".
Visby, the capital of Gotland, in the middle ages was considered one of the most important European trading centers. From the turbulent era are preserved the remains of the fortress (XIII century), about 40 towers, Church Domkyrka (1190-1255,), half-ruined Church of St. Nicholas, St. Lars and the Holy Karina, the Church. Mary, the ruins of the castle Wisborg (XV century) and the Archaeological Museum of Gotland Fornsal".
Between Gotland and the mainland lies a few smaller island of öland - land of windmills (there are more than four hundred), FORTS of the early iron age (the biggest of them - Gteborg, diameter 200 m), also famous for its Museum of medieval life Eketorp, the ruins of the castle Barholm and beacons.
In the middle part of the country interesting Patriarchal medieval town, among which a special place is occupied by Uppsala is the fourth largest city of Sweden, which lies 70 km North of the capital. The city is known first and still the largest University in Scandinavia (founded in 1477) and the building of Gustavianum (1625), as well as its Gothic Cathedral (XIII-XV centuries, the oldest Church in Sweden) with the Cathedral Museum, the Church of St. Trinity (about 1340) and Uppsala castle (XVI century), which now are the Art Museum, the residence of the Governor and the wax Museum Vase, Vignettes". Also noteworthy is the house-Museum of Carl Linnaeus "Hammarby" with a small Botanical garden and the legendary stones of Mora, Gardens Linnaeus (1650 BC), as well as the Church of Argentona (XIII century).
Surrounding the town is literally full of historical monuments. 5 km North of the modern Uppsala is "Old Uppsala" (V-IX centuries), the religious and political center of ancient Sweden, which preserved the Old Uppsala Church (XII century) and burial mounds IV-XII centuries In our days this area is protected by the state and converted into a Museum under the open sky "Dishgarden". 3 km South-West of Uppsala lies "mound of king Bjorn" or "hill Haga" the burial place of the noble Scandinavians "bronze age", and 4 km North of Uppsala found interesting boat burial VI-XI centuries - "Cemetery Valsgarde". In Husby-Longhunter (25 km South-East of Uppsala) is the fortress of Broberg (VI-XI centuries), and in Lersivirine (20 km South-East of Uppsala) - castle Vic (XV century).
Able, the capital of the province Gastrikland, founded in 1446, After numerous fires of the old city remained only the "old center" Gamla Gefle, also of interest are the Museum Landesmuseum Vleborg with works by Swedish artists and the house-Museum of Joe hill. Sundsvall or "Stone city" is a real open-air Museum (Norra Bergets Kanturk Oh Friluftsmuseum). The resort town of Moore on the shores of lake Siljan interesting for its Museum A. Zorn. Västerås attracts tourists for its Gothic Cathedral (XIII century) and locks the XII and XIII centuries.
The North of the country, the area of rugged mountains and green forests, attracted by its nature and excellent opportunities for outdoor activities. Jokmok is located in a sparsely populated wooded part of the country and is the cultural center of the people "AMI", offering the guests the Museum Itte with a unique collection of folk art. The city of miners Kiruna, the largest in Swedish Lapland, is located beyond the Arctic circle and is often called the "city of the white nights". Here is an interesting Museum Kiruna SunGard with an exhibition devoted to the culture of the people "Sami". In the North-Eastern part of Norbotten you can find National parks of Sarek, Stora-Chevallet, Padjelanta and Abisko, Muddy and others.
Throughout the country there are many ski and ski centers, equipped in accordance with modern standards. The largest of them is the PRS, located at the foot of wooded hills near the Norwegian border (620 km from Stockholm). Here more than 100 routes with a total length of 83 km at altitudes from 400 to 1400 m The PR divided by 4 ski areas and stay - or Dowd, PR Tejpal, the PR and the PR Bjornen, interconnected by three bus routes. Everything you need to relax after skiing - there are bars and cafes right on the slopes, discos, restaurants, children's entertainment centers, night clubs, etc. are located Close to the largest waterfall in the country - Tanforan (38-100 m), a small chocolate factory Falconet (beyond the Polar circle!!) and the ancient copper mine, Freo representing the Museum under the open sky. The popular ski resort sälen is located in Central Sweden, in the valley of the river Vester-Gallivan, 320 km from Stockholm. The ski areas Lindvallen-Helleseth and Tandadalen-Handfield offer more than 50 km of slopes at altitudes from 300 to 1100 meters and all conditions for recreation.
Moderate. The summer temperature rarely rises above +22 (in mountainous areas up to 17). In winter in most parts of the country the temperature does not drop below -16, just North frosts are frequent below -22 C. annual Precipitation between 500-700 mm in the plains to 1500-2000 mm on the Western slopes of the mountains. Moist Maritime air masses from the North Atlantic and the Baltic sea often bring quite changeable weather with precipitation and winds, especially in the offseason.
Behind Moscow for 2 hours.
The official language is Swedish, belonging to the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic languages. In the North - Lapland. In the tourism sector widely accepted English.
Monetary unit of Sweden is the Swedish Krona, 1 crown contains 100 era. In circulation are banknotes of 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000 crowns and coins 50 era, 1, 5, 10 CZK.
For entry into the country must have a passport and a visa (Schengen), obtained on the basis of invitation. Consular fee of $ 25. Russians with duration of stay of not more than 3 months need not be registered.
Documents required for visa application:
• passport, the validity of which must end not less than 3 months before the end date of the trip;
• 2 pictures;
• a copy of the internal passport or birth certificate;
• certificate on letterhead from your employer indicating the position and salary;
• visa application form.
Religion: the majority of the population are Lutherans, Protestants, and other Christian confessions.
The Swedes are known in the world for its deep-rooted Lutheran ethics, which is the closest German, but not so dry. Its characteristics include diligence, punctuality, accuracy, reliability, thoroughness, honesty and reliability in the relationship.
The skill level of the Swedish businessmen are very high, and in their partners, they especially appreciate the professionalism. The Swedes, as a rule, speak several languages, primarily English and German.
Swedes love to plan things in advance. They are reticent, and typically do not Express emotions. Friendships and relationships play a special role in business development. Work is not limited to the walls of the office, and often business communication continues during a dinner in the restaurant or in the hotel. Common for guests to refrain from drinking until the host will not raise the toast. Smoking is prohibited on public transport and in most public buildings.
Holidays and non-working days Sweden: 1 January (New year), January 6 (Epiphany), the end of March (good Friday, Easter), 1 may (Labour day), early may (Ascension day), mid may (Pentecost and whit Monday), 6 June (independence Day Sweden), late June (Midsummer day), the first Saturday of November (All saints Day), December 24 (Christmas Eve), December 25-26 (Christmas).
Traditional cuisine Sweden
Swedish national cuisine was formed under the influence of natural conditions of the country and bears the clear imprint of Scandinavian folk traditions. Long Swedes use in their cooking those foods that are able to endure a long winter storage, so widely used pickles, marinades, smoked, and liberally apply fats and sugar. For roasting and stewing Swedes often instead of butter use lard or bacon. Also traditionally weak use of herbs and spices. Another feature is that the addiction is quite simple and repetitive, but very hearty "home kitchen".
The basis of the cuisine, as in many Scandinavian countries, are the fish dishes. Any meal usually begins with snacks with mandatory salted herring, herring in mustard, wine, onions, herring with a spirit", herring fillet with white sauce, herring on the grill or baked in the oven with lemon, grilled herring, herring in brine "glasmalerei" and others, followed by other fish, salted and smoked fish. Extremely popular shellfish, caviar, salmon in a variety of species, cooked sea pike "lutfisk and river fish in various combinations. Only after the fish is taken to change the plates and move on to other dishes. Often fish dishes accompanied by a salad of potatoes (like beet salad with sausage and potatoes "Pete and Panna") and boiled vegetables, hard boiled eggs with various sauces, hearty soups (including the famous beer soup "labrad or soup oysters "nasalspray-honey-egg"), various mushrooms (cantarelli"), boiled potatoes, etc.
Among dairy foods are popular cheeses, buttermilk and yogurt. Also constantly on the table present the pudding, brown bread, dry bread of different kinds and shapes and a variety of jams made from local berries (some of them even go as a kind of sauce to many meat dishes). Traditional meat dishes are mainly prepared from pork, venison and game. Interesting pork roll "plastruder", spicy pork sausage "interband", chopped venison "RESTEC"pate "leverpostej", large dumplings "kottbullar", Christmas ham, fried moose "unstick of algae", cold meats and sandwiches (mostly based on white bread with various fillings.
From drinks Swedes prefer coffee (quite weak) and mineral water. The country produced a set of high-quality alcoholic drinks - vodka, whiskey, liqueurs on local herbs and berries, beer and so on, but still popular various punches and grog.
Political system Sweden
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy. Head of state : king Carl XVI Gustaf. The legislative body is the unicameral Parliament (Riksdag, with 349 seats)elected by secret free voting for four years. The head of government is the Prime Minister. Administratively the country is divided into 21 district (flax).
About 8.9 million people, more than 90% of the population are Swedes, about 3% of Finns, 1% of the Sami (Laplanders).
The import of local and foreign currency is not limited. The export of foreign currency is unlimited, national - not more than 6 thousand CZK banknotes in the dignity of not more than 1 thousand CZK. Duty free allowance 1 liter of alcoholic beverages (up to 60 degrees), 1 l of low-alcohol beverages (up to 22 C) and 2 liters of beer. Champagne is equivalent to strong alcoholic drinks. Age limit for allowance of spirits to 20 years for beer and 18 for tobacco - 16 years. Without special permission is prohibited to import firearms and ammunition, medicines, drugs, poisons, radioactive substances, plants, and animals. Cats and dogs can be imported if there is evidence of a veterinarian about vaccination against rabies, made not less than 30 days and not more than 12 months prior to entry.
Medical aid Sweden
It is recommended to take out health insurance to cover possible expenses when visiting the doctor or hospital stay for the entire period of stay in the country.
In an emergency you can go without an appointment to the special service "Acutating", available at every hospital and clinic - out patient goes to a medical center, or emergency room at hospitals free of charge. In other cases, treatment must produce a certificate from a physician and written evidence of payment of hospital bills. The cost of treatment is high enough (day stay in a municipal hospital costs 200-250 crowns, the visit to the clinic will cost at least 100 CZK, treatment in private hospitals is much more expensive). Almost all medicines sold in pharmacies on prescription and only online pharmacy company "Apoteksbolaget".
Working hours Sweden
Banks and currency exchange are open on weekdays from 9.30 to 15.00 (sometimes up to 18.00), some banks in Central Stockholm - from 9.00 till 17.30, but on Friday they finish work early. Weekends are exchange offices at airports, railway stations, sea berths and post offices. ATMs are working around the clock.
Shops are usually open on weekdays from 10.00 till 18.00, on Saturdays from 10.00 to 16.00 on Sundays from 12.00 to 16.00.
Urban transport buses, metro, trains. Vehicle servicing Stockholm and the region marked with the letters SL. Urban transport carries out a movement in the charts. Books schedules can be obtained from the drivers or ticket inspectors at the stations. Bus service is most developed, 450 routes connect with each other and with the center of all areas of greater Stockholm. Network metro has a total length of more than 110 km - 3 branched lines with more than 100 stations.
For subway and buses use the same tickets. Ticket valid for 1 hour, regardless of the number of transplants and modes of transport that you use. If You come for a long time, it is advantageous to buy a ticket valid for one month worth SEK 355 (registration required photo). Company taxi service to fix prices, discounts. Fee per kilometre ranges from 8 to 20 SEK.
Voltage - 220 V sockets and European standard.
Hotel prices include payment for services. Service in the restaurants included in the bill. Late in the evening, the payment for the services above. Taxi drivers should not take a tip.
Helpful information Sweden
A single number for the police, fire brigade or ambulance: 9-00-00.