Turkey - a paradise on earth, where the rich culture, reinforced by national traditions, hospitable and wise people, friendly and always smiling and ready to help, unparalleled in the world in a variety of dishes, "seasoned" unique melody, legends and oriental tales, you fall in love, your heart is calling again to see this wonderful region.
The Turkish Republic is located in West Asia and parts of Southern Europe, bordering the Black Sea to the north, in the south - the Mediterranean Sea to the west - the Aegean Sea. Surface Area 814,578 square meters. km. Capital - Ankara. Caucasian (23.7 sq km.) And the Asian part of the divided Sea of Marmara straits of Bosporus and Dardanelles. Bordering the Black, Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.
It is a state with a unique and, for the most part, untouched nature. For a holiday in Turkey has it all: the emerald sea, golden beaches, gentle sun, covered with pine trees, mountain peaks, swift river flows and waterfalls.
Western Anatolia consists of rough mountain ranges and river valleys, the highest peak of the region - the mountain of Uludag (2453 m). On the contrary, Thrace and Marmara - Plains region. Anatolian Black Sea coast framed by the mountains of Pontus (Pontus Euxine - the ancient name of the Black Sea), which are arranged parallel to the coast. Similarly, parallel to the narrow and hilly coast of the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean are located the Taurus Mountains, the largest mountain range in the country (in the south-east, in Malatya, it develops into Antitavr). Here, in the south-western region, there are several freshwater lakes: Beyzegir, Egridir and Burdural.
Southeast Anatolia - a low plateau in the north, east and west, surrounded by mountains. But the most mountainous region of Turkey is East Anatolia. There is the famous Mount Ararat (5137 m), to which Noah's Ark. There's also originate the Tigris River (Diklo) and Euphrates (Firat), considered the cradle of civilization. (In fact, almost all the rivers of Turkey and unnavigable rapids, some dry up in summer, the longest river in the country is Kızılırmak length 1150 km). There is and one of the two largest lakes in Turkey - Van Lake, with an area of about 3.7 thousand. Sq. km and a depth of over 145 m. origin is mainly tectonic lake indefinitely, it mitigates climate nearby mountains. Van salty water.
Anatolian plateau (Central Anatolia and Cappadocia) is in the center of the country and surrounded by the mountains. Cappadocia region is formed by extinct volcanoes and now is a bizarre jumble of rocks. In the center is the second of the largest lakes in Turkey - Ace, too salty. The highest point of the plateau - Mount Erciyes (3916 m).
Every bit of the air of Istanbul, once known as Constantinople, Byzantium, founded in 660 BC - scented ancient history, in which twisted Christianity and Islam, secular and religious, modern and traditional, as well as, literally, the East and the West. Istanbul, washed Marmara and Black seas, the only city in the world, located in two parts of the world, you only have to go through a huge suspension bridges over the Bosphorus, and you are already in urban Europe or colorful Asia.
It should be noted that the stay in Istanbul very unconventional phenomenon is a major metropolis, is not conducive to measured pastime, not absolutely clear sea, remoteness of the town beach which will be reached by boat, is not conducive to the development of active tourism. But Istanbul is a real find for lovers of historical tours, educational trips to museums, exploring the many faces of Turkey.
The concentration of monuments of different epochs and styles, concentrated in the city is amazing, but, undoubtedly, the main attraction of Istanbul for hundreds of years remains the Church of St. Sophia, turned 600 years ago in the mosque of El-Sofia. Metamorphosis St. Sofia - once the great Christian Church was in the annexe four minarets and fill all the available images. Now converted into a Museum, the Hagia. Sofia, attracts many tourists with its dual nature, restored mosaics and paintings, a mixture of cultures and traditions, some of them can make a wish placing the hand in the hole "the weeping column, or to touch the miraculous colon, feeling even in the heat, the breeze cool breeze in the "cold box".
Not far from the former Christian shrines, surrounded by greenery and flowers, is world famous for its 6 minarets, grace and beauty, skillfully blue tiles, Ahmed mosque. Better known as the Blue mosque, she attracts the attention of tourists to its exterior, Venemaa dome inlaid with precious stones and engraved Islamic prayers.
The masterpieces of Islamic architecture is the largest mosque Turkey süleymaniye, known for its ethereal acoustics, and Topkapi Palace with its famous harem, the Armory, a huge library, and most importantly, the mummified hand of the man - according to legend, belonged to the prophet Muhammad.
The city has many palaces, churches, mosques, madrasahs, fortresses, underground water tanks, towers, baths, columns, obelisks, ruins of ancient buildings and interesting museums, among which the most are : the Museum of the Carew, Museum of antiquities, the Museum of Oriental Antiquities, the Museum of Turkish and Islamic arts, which differ not only spiritual fullness, and amazing appearance.
Coming into contact with the cultural antiquities, despite widespread active trade, each tourist visiting Istanbul, will want to get to the real Bazaar, the oldest and biggest market in the world was Dropping Bazaar with lots of shops where a variety of products for all occasions.
Fascinating in its transparency and the turquoise Mediterranean sea is a real proving ground for a variety of water activities, you can go on catamarans and scooters, sunbathe on the deck of a yacht and experience the joy of sliding on rapid water skiing, to plunge into the unknown underwater depths, because diving in Antalya, one of the most interesting in Turkey.
In the amazing dives in the Anatolian waters, before the eyes of these divers will see the remains of sunken ships from different eras and destinations: Cape Tashlyk they will have a meeting with antique ship the 13th century BC "Heliconia", reposing on 26-28 meters, berth yacht with a French military vessel "San Didier". No less popular among fans of deep walks scuba diving are areas with origins in the uncharted sea underwater cliffs - the abode of hundreds of thousands of colorful fish, flashing in the amazing underwater gardens. These places around Antalya are Falsy, where rocks down to otrov, and O. Xichang, with 22 metre cliffs and mysterious underwater cave, a fascinating area for diving in Antalya.
By the way, about the caves, once in Antalya, by all means, visit the grotto of Alouini and appreciate the natural beauty of the miraculous wonder of the world - a huge overhanging top and emerging from the bottom of the giant stalactites and stalagmites. Famous throughout Turkey and located near Antalya Kursunlu waterfall. It is believed that its water falling with a mighty noise from a height, have medicinal properties, but because everyone who has been here a tourist, definitely expresses the desire to bathe in cold healing "streams".
Back in the city, and strolling along the Golden series of the quarter shops, sparkling glitter of precious stones in a stunning frames, you should visit the world-famous wonderful exhibit - the mummy, Anatolian history Museum, where you will have a meeting with the cultural heritage of Byzantium, in particular the collection of Christian icons, relics of the Saint. Nicholas and many others that we should see with their eyes; visit the historic Roman-Ottoman center. After making a few remarkable pictures of the beautiful scenery of Antalya, it is necessary to leave a few frames for the evening, as the sunset Antalya is a special attraction, watching which is a pleasure. Will not be bored in Antalya and children who have such a water Park with many water slides and pools, from which you can hear enthusiastic, and joyful cries of the different languages of the world. Youth with envy looking at the younger generation opens its doors to the most famous night club Antalya "Olympus", where Eastern and world music rhythms will make you forget about everything and disappear into the world of music and fun.
One of the symbols of the city - the gateway to Hadrian erected in honor of visiting the city by the Roman Emperor Hadrian in 130 BC
In Antalya many ancient monuments, of which particularly good symbol of Antalya" - built by the Seljuk Turks Yivli minaret ("folded", XI century) 37 feet tall, and the Eski mosque Jami, modelled on the Byzantine Church in 1373, gravestones wife of the Sultan Based II and Mehmet Bey, the former monastery of "dancing dervishes" Mevlevihane with an exhibition of contemporary art, and destroyed by lightning broken minaret.
On departure from Antalya to Kemer is a wonderful water Park "Aqualand" - the oldest of the water parks in Antalya, designed for 1500 people and is built according to international standards in the area of 40 thousand square meters
New Park Atlantis is located in the mountains and built on the American project with more complex and intricate system of water slides and "pipes". Many pools are complemented one large, artificially high waves. In addition, there is a little known Park Aqualord in nearby Kemer - 8 large slides and "pipes" of all kinds, pools and slides for kids, swimming pool with pirate ship", as well as an adult pool with artificial stream and Jacuzzi.
But the main attractions are concentrated in the vicinity of the city - the ancient city of Perge (334 BC) where the preserved ancient theatre and stadium, Aspend with many beautiful buildings, including the Palace theatre architect Zeno (II century BC) and arched Roman aqueduct, Olympos and other In the vicinity of Demre lie the ruins of the ancient capital of Lycia - the Worlds known fact that in this city in the fourth century was Bishop favorite in Russia, St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. The site of the Cathedral, in which he served in the seventh century built the Church. Nicholas, which became a place of pilgrimage for all Christians. Every year in December, here is a commemoration of Santa Claus, attracting numerous tourists.
Belek, located between Antalya and side, is a recognized Golf facility in the region. Located in close proximity to the ruins of the ancient cities of Perge, Aspendos and side, and has a number of first-class hotel complexes, surrounded by pine, cedar and eucalyptus forests.
You should visit the magnificent cypress and eucalyptus national Park "köprülü Canyon" area of 500 hectares. In the reserve there is an opportunity to practice climbing, horseback riding, and all kinds of water sports, but the most popular rafting on a mountain river Koprucay.
Side ("garnet") is a small town on the Peninsula, 75 km from Antalya, one of the busiest resorts in the South of Turkey. To the present day remains of the amphitheatre 16 thousand spectators, the statue of the Emperor Vespasian, the temple of Fortuna, fountain, Agora, Roman baths (which now houses the archaeological Museum), the necropolis and the aqueduct.
Its famous sandy beaches are among the best in the region. 7 km from the city lies another attraction is the waterfall Manavi where the river literally falls directly into the sea.
Kemer, located 42 km South of Antalya. This is a rapidly growing resort centre and one of the most famous yachting centres with all the ensuing consequences. In addition to the many shops, bars and restaurants of the pedestrian zone, luxury yacht centre and a network of modern hotels and clubs located on the slopes rising to the sea forested Taurus mountains.
In the Northern part of Kemer is Yoruk Park - live ethnographic exposition dedicated to the history and life of the Turkish people.
Near Kemer, lie the ruins of the ancient port city of Phaselis (Tekirova), where the remains of the port walls, amphitheatre, paved road leading to the arch of Hadrian, the Acropolis and the ruins of aqueducts, marketplaces and baths. According to legend, Alexander the great is buried here. In the same region, at the foot of mount Olympos (Tahtali, 2400 m) are the ruins of another ancient city of Olympos was founded in the III century BC the City was the center of worship to the God Hephaestus.
Fethiye (Termessos, the City of Light) is known for its beautiful beaches, rugged coves of the coast, lively bazaars, rock graves and lush subtropical vegetation. Amazing views of the Bay opens from the ruins of the castle of the knights of Rhodes.
You can take a trip on a yacht with a visit to the 12 Islands, including the Islands of Pirates and the island of Cleopatra's sunken ruins of the ancient city. Or go Chaly (5 km. from Fethiye) or the Oludeniz lagoon, famous for some of the most beautiful beaches in Turkey.
Interesting Dalyan is one of the few places in the Mediterranean, where he remained turtles, as well as beautiful mountain gorge of Saklikent. In the surroundings of Fethiye many hotels club system in a cozy secluded coves, known for its beauty.
Alanya, founded in the IV century B.C. the Main attraction Alanya - Byzantine fortress on top of a mountain overlooking the city. Well preserved, protected harbour, the Red tower (Kizil Kale) height of 29 meters Beaches of the region covered with fine sand, horseshoe coast dissected outstanding in a sea of rocky headlands on cosy Cove. Alanya is also famous for its caves, the most popular ones being fantastic damlataş cave with intricate interweaving of stalactites and stalagmites.
Vnutrennie conditions of this cave (temperature - +22-23, humidity 90-98%) very favorable for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory diseases. In "Girl cave" pirates hid their stolen girls, there is also a "cave" and "Phosphoric cave, so named because of the interesting lighting effect.
Marmaris is one of the best sea resorts in the country. Located in the Bay with three Islands, full of secluded and deserted bays, on the border of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. The tourist boom has transformed the fishing village of Marmaris in comfortable tourist resort, but most of the Peninsula is closed to investment, in order to preserve the natural beauty of the coast. The old town is built around the Ottoman fortress of the second century, it has preserved Caravanserai, where there are many shops, and an ancient castle, the stronghold of the knights Hospitallers (1522 A.D.).
Every year in may there is held a colorful international sailing regatta.
Kusadasi (Bird island) is located in the center of the homonymous Bay. The main attractions of Kusadasi is an ancient Genoese fortress Kucukali Kalesi on the island of Guvercin ("Pigeon island"), surrounded by thick defensive shaft, and a Caravanserai. But the main attraction of the city create wonderful landscapes, crystal-clear sea, beautiful tourist resorts, bars and discos, countless shops and fish restaurants and intoxicating air, scented with pine trees, oleanders and sea salt. There are excursions to Ephesus, Didyma, Priene and Pamukkale.
Amateur archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated Troy in 1871. Until that time, it was believed that the Iliad of Homer was based on the legend, but after its excavation, Troy became known as the Homeric city of Iliona, place the epic battle between the Achaeans (Greeks) and the Trojans in the 13th century BC During excavations conducted by Schliemann, and other excavations, it was found nine ancient cities, created one on another related 3000 BC Troy VI (1800-1275 BC) - the city of Priam, who participated in the Trojan war.
For know-it-alls all that surprising, but if You haven't read "the Iliad" or not very well versed in archaeology, Troy will not present any interest for You. In addition to the layout of the Trojan horse, here are a few that can attract the eyes of the lover. They say that this place is one of the greatest fairy tales of the world, so it will be sufficient at least to soak up this atmosphere. Troy is 30 km from Canakkale (Canakkale), with bus connections to most Turkish cities.
Subtropical, with great contrasts in temperature and moisture, depending on the height and distance from the sea. The variety of terrain creates a variety of climate and nature.
Far from Moscow at 1:00.
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic. In cities and tourist centers are also used: English, German, French.
Turkish lira. Banknotes in circulation (pounds) in denominations of 1 000 000 500 000, 250 000 lire coins in 5000, 10 000, 25 000, 50 000, 100 000 and 250 000 pounds. Put into circulation banknotes of 5 and 10 million. Lire.
Citizens of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus get Turkish visa at the border. Upon arrival at the airport in Turkey visa stamp must be purchased for $ 20, which entitles you to enter the country for 2 months. Re-entry into the country for one brand is possible, if the period expires on a trip before the visa expires. Otherwise, you need to buy a new brand. Validity of passport should be at least 3 months after the end of the tour.
In the Muslim tradition, entering the mosque, in a private house, it is necessary to remove the shoes. The Turks are honesty, courtesy, politeness. The interview should not begin with the main topic, you must exercise restraint. The Turks would be nice if some phrases are spoken in their native language.
Holidays and public holidays: 1 January (New Year), April 23 (independence Day and children's Day), 1 may, 19 may (memorial Day Ataturk), August 30 (Day of victory), 29 October (Republic Day), religious holidays.
Religion: the majority of the population are Sunni Muslims. Most religious people and many areas of public life is permeated by Islam.
Traditional cuisine Turkey
Thanks to the huge variety of products and craftsmanship Turkish cooks, Turkish cuisine few people are indifferent.
Appetizers (meze - meze and salads (solata - salad), varied and delicious that it is possible to dine among them. Usually the waiter brings a tray of snacks to choose from.
Priority is given to the dishes of beef and lamb. Typical Turkish dishes - Doner and kebab. Known dolma, here are the tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, peppers and grape leaves. They are filled with rice, nuts, spices and cooked with olive oil and lemon.
Pies: between thin layers of dough is placed the toppings of cheese, spices, meat, fish or spinach, served as appetizer or main dish.
Of particular importance in Turkish cuisine are given sweets. They have a special exotic names. The most famous sweets - baklava (baklava), but we also recommend "animeboy". Stuffed peaches, pudding, fresh fruit are available all year round.
The national drink is raki (aniseed vodka), which is diluted with water and the result is a drink called "lion's milk". From known wines: dry Villa Doluca, sweet, Doluca Riesling, as well as classic Anatolian wine Dikmen.
Political system Turkey
Turkey - a republic.
Turkey's population is about 65 million. People, the average population density of about 82 people per square kilometer. km. The highest density is in Istanbul and the coastal regions. Annual population growth - about 1.57%. 60% of the population lives in cities. Ethnic groups: 80% of the Meskhetian Kurds - 17%, Greeks, Arabs, Armenians and Jews.
Import of any currency in Turkey free, limited export: Turkish lira can be exported in an amount equivalent to $ 1,000. Turkish currency - is very unstable, so do not change money before arriving in the country, do not change the whole sum at once, do not accept coins and banknotes of lower esteem than the above: they are withdrawn from circulation.
Medical aid Turkey
Medical care in Turkey available for a surcharge. If you need a doctor, we suggest you contact the administration for your hotel. If you have health insurance, then, before you call a doctor, you must call the phone listed in the policy, and then follow the instructions of the insurance company.
Working hours Turkey
You can exchange money at exchange offices and banks. Branches of banks are generally open on weekdays from 8.30 am to 17 pm. Time - from 12 to 13.30.
Shops tend to operate from 9.30 am to 19 pm. Time - from 13 to 14 hours. Day off - Sunday. The covered market in Istanbul is open from 8 am to 19 pm every day except Sunday.
Bus - the most popular means of communication within Turkey. The average ticket price in the city - 200 thousand Turkish Liras - 0.5 USD. Taxi - the average cost for 1 km - 1.5 USD (payment by taximeter). At night (GECE) - from 24.00 to 6.00 is a double rate. Taxis - work from 6.00 to 24.00 with a fixed cost for the ride. In small cities like Belek traffic ends around 20.00.
One of the most popular means of transport in Turkey - a shuttle bus, which in Turkish called "dolmus". This vehicle plying in a certain direction, a fixed-price travel, which does not depend on the length of the trip. They go from six in the morning until midnight. To date, the fare is about $ 0.5.
Tourists at least 21 years, have the right to drive a car can rent a car.
Potable water Turkey
Tap water is safe to drink, but heavily chlorinated. It is recommended to use drinking, packed in bottles. It can be bought in any store.
220 V, 50 Hz.
The Turkish Parliament, in connection with the need to meet European standards, is going to introduce a ban on Smoking. In accordance with the Anti-Smoking law, approved by the Committee on legal Affairs of the Parliament of Turkey, the ban is introduced in public places throughout the country.
Tip porters (within 1$), the waiters 10% of the cost of the lunch. Taxi drivers tipping is not customary.
Helpful information Turkey
The police - 155, Ambulance - 112, Fire Department - 110, Reference - 118, e-Mail info - 161.